Symptoms of pharyngitis and remedies

Pharyngitis (pharyngitis) is a disease characterized by inflammation of the pharynx , which lies in the upper section of the neck.

Viruses, bacteria, allergic reactions and fungi can cause inflammation of the throat.
This common disorder can affect people of all ages.
The disease occurs along with the common cold or influenza, but can also be caused by:


Types of pharyngitis

  • Chronic atrophic pharyngitis is characterized by the formation of fibrous tissue, which causes a decrease in size of:
    • glands in the pharyngeal mucosa,
    • Lymph node
    • Vessels.
  • Chronic hypertrophic pharyngitis is characterized by inflammation of the mucous membrane and enlargement of the pharyngeal tonsils (exudative pharyngitis).
  • Ulcerative pharyngitis is characterized by ulcers in the pharyngeal mucosa.
  • In catarrhal pharyngitis, the pharyngeal mucosa has an erythematous appearance (it is reddened) and is full of mucus and pus.
  • Herpetiform pharyngitis is caused by the herpes virus and is characterized by:
    • high fever,
    • sore throat,
    • Nervousness
    • the appearance of small blisters on the gums, tongue and palate.

Risk factors of pharyngitis

Factors contributing to the triggering of episodes of pharyngitis:

Inflammation of the pharynx can be caused by irritation of a tonsil (tonsil).
The pain is one-sided.
Infection can spread from the tonsils to the surrounding tissues and lead to the formation of a peritonsillar abscess (localized accumulation of pus in the surrounding tissues of the tonsil). Thus, pain exists only on one side in the throat.

Gastroesophageal reflux Gastroesophageal reflux
irritates the throat and can lead to:

  • chronic pharyngitis,
  • Laryngitis.

Cold, influenza, infectious mononucleosis and parotitis are some of the viral infections that can cause pharyngitis.

  • Viral throat infections
    Adenovirus is the virus that most often causes pharyngitis. The infection spreads faster than other diseases and usually affects people with a weakened immune system, such as children and the elderly. The other pathogenic agents that cause this condition are rhinovirus, coronavirus, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza virus, parainfluenza virus and herpes simplex virus.
  • Bacterial throat infections Streptococcus and mycoplasma cause bacterial infections
    . Streptococcus causes infection in the throat, mycoplasma causes:

    • Bronchitis
    • Pneumonia.

Rhinovirus, coronavirus and respiratory syncytial virus are some of the pathogenic agents that can cause a cold. Stuffy or runny nose, cough and an irritated throat are just some of the characteristic symptoms of this pathology. The other symptoms are:

Influenza Influenza
is caused by a virus. These microorganisms can be transmitted:

  • by air,
  • about droplet infection.

The symptoms of influenza are similar to those of the common cold, but seasonal flu also causes:

Other symptoms include:

Infectious mononucleosis Infectious mononucleosis
(also called “kissing disease” in the past) is a condition that causes persistent pharyngitis. This disease is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus.
Symptoms include:

Acute pharyngitis could be caused by a bacterial infection such as diphtheria. The bacteria spread among humans by inhaling secretions expelled by:

  • Cough
  • Sneeze.

Diphtheria is an infection that affects the upper respiratory tract. Corynebacterium diphtheriae causes this disease.

Suspension of:

Symptoms of pharyngitis

The most common symptoms are:

  1. Sore throat
  2. Xerostomia
  3. Hoarseness or deep voice (if there is also laryngitis)
  4. Swallowing disorders
  5. Dry and persistent cough
  6. Sneeze
  7. Fatigue
  8. Fever
  9. Enlargement of cervical lymph nodes
  10. Swollen palate suppository
  11. Itching in the throat
  12. White plaques on the tonsils, if the patient also suffers from tonsillitis.

Symptoms in children:

  1. Swelling in the throat
  2. Mild fever
  3. Enlarged lymph nodes
  4. Swallowing disorders
  5. Runny nose
  6. Irritability
  7. Frequent crying
  8. Sneeze
  9. Mild rash (if the pharyngitis is caused by streptococci)

Symptoms of viral pharyngitis:

  1. Dry throat
  2. Deepening voice

Symptoms of bacterial pharyngitis:

  1. Inflamed pharynx
  2. Fever
  3. Headache
  4. Lymph node swelling
  5. Fatigue
  6. Sneeze
  7. Cough
  8. Nausea
  9. Vomit

Pharyngitis can be accompanied by infections of other organs of the body:

  • laryngitis, it is characterized by hoarseness;
  • Tracheitis;
  • Pneumonia;
  • a complication of pharyngitis is otitis, an infection of the ear. In this case, consultation of a specialist, the ear specialist, is required.

Pharyngitis during pregnancy

Sore throats can be worrying. One should consult the family doctor for a quick examination or to create a culture to clarify the infection.
The doctor prescribes antibiotics to treat a bacterial infection.
If the doctor prescribes drugs with the active substances cephalexin, penicillin and amoxicillin, it is imperative to comply with the instruction to:

  • Dosage
  • Duration of intake.

During pregnancy, extreme caution should be exercised. An overdose can be harmful:

  • for the mother,
  • for the child.

An insufficient dose of antibiotics can mean a recurrent or recurrent infection and harm mother and child.

Bacteria responsible for pharyngitis

Streptococcus is a bacterium that causes:

  • Sore throat
  • Tonsillitis.

Usually, the incubation period of this disease is less than 10 days.
The palate suppository (or uvula) becomes red and painful and white spots appear on the tonsils. The lymph nodes enlarge, in addition, they make themselves felt:

Sore throat can provoke:

  • ear infections,
  • Tonsillitis.

Rheumatic fever can occur with complications for:

  • Valves
  • Nephritic.

Neisseria meningitidis (meningitis)
Meningitis is a rare disease and a very serious infection. The inflammation affects the meninges, which are the meninges that cover the brain and spinal cord.
In the disease, the blood vessels in the brain can close and develop:

Meningitis can occur in any year of life; however, microbes mainly attack:

  • Children
  • Elderly
  • Adults with weakened immune systems.

The bacillus infects people with whom one lives in close contact: school friends, military colleagues, etc.
Symptoms are:

Corynebacterium diphtheriae (diphtheria)
Diphtheria is a serious bacterial infection caused by the Corynebacterium diphtheriae.
It develops extremely quickly and spreads very easily.
Children under 5 years of age and adults over 60 years of age have an increased risk of developing this pathology.

Dry cough and pharyngitis

These two conditions can occur at the same time or the dry cough can follow pharyngitis. Dry cough can be caused by several factors:

  • asthma,
  • allergy,
  • inhalation of a foreign body,
  • Inhalation of irritants.

With retronasal dripping, massive mucus forms in the paranasal sinuses.
The secretions flow down the posterior pharynx and lead to:

  • Pharyngitis
  • Cough.

Since the mucus is dry, the cough is also dry.

Diagnosis of pharyngitis

Diagnosis is made based on the patient’s symptoms and medical history.

The doctor examines the throat for the following signs:

Palpation of the neck shows whether the lymph nodes are enlarged.

Some doctors recommend taking tissue material from the throat (throat swab) to detect the presence of bacteria. However, this smear sometimes contains mainly good bacteria and is therefore not reliable.

In addition to visual examination of the neck, the following tests can be performed:

  • Blood analyses are helpful to detect viruses and bacteria in the bloodstream.
  • If the doctor suspects allergy as the cause of pharyngitis, allergy tests may be prescribed:
    • Prick test
    • RAST test
  • STRAA: Streptococcal Antigen Rapid Test
    In the rapid antigen test, a swab is taken from the tonsils (or from the posterior section of the throat) and examined for streptococci. However, a negative result does not exclude the possibility of streptococcal pharyngitis.
  • The most appropriate examination is a nasal endoscopy, with which the oral cavity can be viewed and a correct diagnosis can be made.

How is viral pharyngitis treated?

Viral pharyngitis heals without treatment. The infection lasts about a week. Antibiotics do not help and can also cause unpleasant side effects.

A throat “ingested” by streptococci must be treated as soon as possible to avoid complications.

Drug treatment of pharyngitis

Doctors prescribe a cycle of antibiotics to treat the bacterial infection. Antibiotics used are:

  • Clarithromycin, is prescribed for infections caused by Haemophilus influenzae;
  • amoxicillin (Infectomox), if pharyngitis is diagnosed immediately upon the onset of symptoms; the doctor may also prescribe this remedy during pregnancy;
  • azithromycin;
  • Clindamycin, is prescribed for allergy to penicillin;
  • Penicillin (for streptococcal infection).

The medications:

  • prevent the spread of infection to other people;
  • relieve the symptoms in the affected person.

For pain and inflammation, the doctor may prescribe nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ketoprofen (Alrheumun).
In very severe cases, corticosteroids such as betamethasone (Celestamine) may be advised, but due to numerous side effects, they must be used with caution.

Over-the-counter medicines may be indicated for pain relief in the throat. However, in children, these drugs must be administered wisely.

There are some precautions and home remedies that can be used in parallel with the doctor’s prescribed therapy.

Natural remedies for pharyngitis

  • Smoking can aggravate the disease and delay healing.
    Most often, smoking causes recurrent pharyngitis (frequent recurrence).
    It is therefore recommended to quit smoking.
  • Caffeinated liquids should not be drunk.
  • Gargle with salt water. Dissolve a teaspoon of salt in lukewarm water. The solution should not be drunk.
    Propolis can also help.
  • Chewing a piece of ginger relieves pain and discomfort. Ginger mixed with honey, chopped ginger leads to a quick relief.
    Infants and babies under 12 months of age are not allowed to eat honey.
  • The combination of black pepper and ginger acts as a strong analgesic for a sore throat.
  • Turmeric and green tea. Mix a teaspoon of turmeric into a cup of hot green tea and drink before bed. Do this three or four times a day to achieve good success. You can also add a small piece of ginger and honey.

Diet and nutrition in pharyngitis

According to hygienism (a natural medicine), pharyngeal inflammation cannot be cured with herbal teas or other home remedies, but with a healthy diet.

The recommended natural foods are:

  • juicy seasonal fruit (oranges, honeydew melon, kiwi, apples, pears, peaches, etc.),
  • nuts and almonds,
  • green leafy vegetables (chard, rocket, lettuce).

The hygienists advise to avoid all other foods until recovery.

In this way, the body can:

  • detoxify
  • focus on curing pharyngitis, because these foods are easily digestible.

For good health, the body must excrete the toxins produced by digestion and everyday activities.
Diseases and symptoms are a way for the body to cleanse itself; For example:

  • Cough serves to rid the respiratory tract of the harmful substances.
  • Fever increases metabolism and favors the fight against harmful microorganisms.

Recommendations for children and newborns

In winter, the air becomes dry, which aggravates pharyngitis.

  • room humidifier is recommended to increase the dissolved water vapor in the air. This helps to keep the throat moist.
  • Good hygiene helps to avoid various oral diseases. Wash hands with soap and water before eating or after using the toilet.
  • Due to a sore throat, the back of the throat can be dry. To treat this symptom, it is recommended to drink water throughout the day.

Is pharyngitis contagious?

Yes, pharyngitis is contagious. If a healthy person comes into contact with the infectious secretions, the infection can be transmitted. This is the case when a person suffering from pharyngitis:

  • Sneezes
  • Hat
  • kisses another.

The bacillus also spreads through personal items such as:

  • Towels
  • plates and glasses,
  • Handkerchiefs.

How long does pharyngeal inflammation last? When does it pass?

The prognosis of pharyngitis depends on the particular cause.
Usually it is caused by a viral infection that passes in 5-6 days.

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