Vomiting is the unwanted, convulsive emptying of the stomach through the mouth.
Nausea is an unpleasant sensation in the stomach that often precedes vomiting.
Type of vomiting
- food vomiting: the food is spit out, the color of the vomit is yellowish or light brown; The trigger can be, for example, excessive alcohol consumption; immediately after vomiting, the affected person feels much better.
- Watery vomiting: acid with gastric juices.
- Mucous vomiting: contains no acid, but a lot of mucus and gastric juices.
- Galleerbrechen: contains bile and in this case is green.
- Feces: dark brown color, smell of feces.
The cause is usually an intestinal obstruction.
- Vomiting blood (haematemesis): light blood is usually caused by a stomach ulcer or cirrhosis of the liver.
- Coffee grounds vomiting: the vomit contains digested blood and therefore has a tar-like color.
One speaks of insatiable vomiting when this symptom persists and the affected person can no longer keep anything with him. This is a serious condition and can cause a strong malaise of the patient.
Main causes of vomiting
The main cause is a viral infection of the stomach (for example, rotavirus).
The disease begins with vomiting, as a rule, diarrhea also occurs after 12-24 h.
Food poisoning. Poisoning by toxins is caused by bacteria that multiply in poorly preserved foods (e.g. staphylococci in salad) or toxins of Bacillus cereus in rice dishes.
Also, a strong cough can lead to vomiting. This is especially common in children with reflux.
Pregnancy can cause vomiting. Pregnant women often suffer from morning sickness and vomiting.
Migraine In migraines, vomiting often occurs, usually when the stabbing headache sets in, and disappears again when the migraine
The doctor prescribes remedies for the migraine and thus also relieves the nausea.
Appendicitis is a medical emergency and can cause vomiting. In addition, extremely severe abdominal pain occurs and the appendix must be removed.
Labyrinth inflammation is an infection of the inner ear that causes dizziness and ringing in the ears. The doctor may prescribe symptom-relieving medications while the immune system fights the infection. Healing can take up to two weeks.
Vomitus can occur due to a digestive blockage caused by cold (e.g. swimming in cold water or drinking ice-cold drinks).
In eating disorders such as bulimia and anorexia, vomiting is caused by those affected themselves. For this purpose, “two fingers are stuck into the neck” or a stick is held to the epithelium (closure of the laryngeal entrance); in this way, the opening of the gastric sphincter is effected; the contraction of the muscles transports the stomach contents towards the mouth.
- Food allergies
- Gastroesophageal reflux, rising stomach contents (food or fluid) into the esophagus
- Medications or therapies, such as cancer treatment with chemotherapy or radiotherapy
- Very severe pain, for example with kidney stones
If vomiting as a single symptom (without diarrhea) persists for more than 24 hours, there may be serious causes behind it, such as:
Symptoms that may indicate a serious illness
1. Breaking blood or gale voids
2. Weight loss
3. Severe abdominal pain
4. High fever, neck stiffness, sensitivity
to light 5. Increasing weakness/disturbance of consciousness
The doctor will measure fever, as well as examine chest and abdomen.
The moment when nausea or vomiting occurs may indicate the cause.
If they occur immediately after eating, nausea and vomiting may be caused by:
- Food poisoning
- gastritis (inflammation of the gastric mucosa),
Nausea or vomiting that occurs one to eight hours after eating may indicate food poisoning.
However, some disorders – such as salmonella – can cause symptoms after 12 to 72 hours.
Severity of vomiting
Due to the loss of fluid, there is a risk of dehydration (dehydration) in case of vomiting; due to the risk of dehydration, the following classification can be made: MILD: Vomiting 1 to 2 times daily MODERATE: Vomiting 3 to 7 times daily
Everything or almost everything is vomited again, at least 8 times a day.
At the beginning of food poisoning, it often happens that the child vomits constantly for 3-4 hours, and then stabilizes with mild to moderate vomiting.
The smaller the child, the greater the risk of dehydration.
Vomiting in children
The causes of vomiting change depending on age.
In children, the most common causes are:
- Food poisoning
- milk allergy,
- kinetosis (malaise due to exercise or motion sickness),
- indigestion (eating too much),
- high fever.
What is the best way to treat vomiting?
In most cases, treatment is not necessary for vomiting.
Usually there is a virus behind it and the state of health improves on its own.
Medication should not be taken without a doctor’s advice or doctor’s prescription.
If an infant vomits, he should be laid on his side if possible. This prevents the vomit from entering the respiratory tract and lungs.
for fluid loss In the case of persistent vomiting, fluid loss must be counteracted to prevent dehydration. If the body loses too much fluid, dysfunction of the organs can be caused.
Therefore, the child must be supplied with more fluid to compensate for the loss.
Change of the child’s diet In the first 24 hours after the onset of vomiting, the
child should not be given solid food, but it should often consume small amounts of a drinking solution consisting of sugar and electrolytes.
Fluid intake counteracts fluid loss and reduces the risk of re-nausea.
For fluid balancing, it is essential to follow the doctor’s recommendations.
Guidelines for oral fluid balancing
Babies up to 6 months
The child should not be given ordinary water unless the doctor specifically orders it and specifies an exact amount.
The baby should be fed 15-20 tsp of electrolyte solution every 2-3 minutes. The drinking liquid must also contain sugar.
As soon as the child eats normally again, this solution is discontinued, as it would put additional strain on the irritated stomach, possibly leading to renewed vomiting.
If the child has not vomited for at least 8 hours, milk can be gradually reintroduced.
If breastfeeding babies vomit more than once (not just spitting, but emptying the entire contents of the stomach), apply the child to the breast every 2 hours for 5-10 minutes. If it vomits again, a doctor should be notified.
After 8 hours without vomiting, normal breastfeeding can be resumed.
If the child is not yet 2 months old and vomits every milk meal, the pediatrician must be notified immediately.
Babies between 6 and 12 months
A child who is not yet a year old should not be given regular water unless the doctor specifically orders it and specifies an exact amount.
The baby should often be offered small amounts of electrolyte solution (about 15 tsp every 20-3 minutes).
The drinking liquid must have a precisely balanced mineral salt ratio.
There are flavored liquids or you can add 2/<> tsp fruit juice to improve taste.
Gradually increase the amount of drinking liquid if the child has not vomited for at least <> hours.
It should reach the amount of fluid that the child normally consumes over the course of a day.
After 8 hours without vomiting, you can gradually switch back to milk or the normal diet.
To do this, start with small amounts of soft foods, such as bananas, cereals or lyophilized baby food.
If these foods are well tolerated, it is possible to switch to toasted bread, broth, soup, mashed potatoes, rice and bread.
Children from 1 year and older:
Spoonfuls of small amounts of clear liquid, milk and dairy products should be avoided; the amount should be between 2 tsp and 2 tbsp or 30 ml, depending on how much the child can consume every 15 minutes.
How much fluid does the child need?
The biggest mistake most parents make when their child suffers from vomiting and diarrhea is to administer too much fluid per drinking session. Especially if the child vomits frequently, only one spoonful of fluid should be administered at a time; use a syringe, pipette or teaspoon.
The amount can be increased slowly once the vomiting subsides.
Within the first one to two hours, a spoonful of liquid every 5 to 10 minutes is recommended.
The amount of fluid also depends on how much fluid the child has already lost.
For children with:
- With minimal or no dehydration, any incident of vomiting or diarrhea must be compensated with 100 ml of fluid if the child weighs less than 10 kg, or 200 ml if the body weight exceeds 10 kg.
- mild or moderate dehydration, with decreased urinary output, dry mouth and weight loss of 3-9 percent of body weight, it is necessary to drink 3-4 ml per kilo of body weight every 25-50 hours.
- severe dehydration, with a weight loss of more than 9 percent, increased pulse, deep breathing, dry mouth, strongly sunken eyes, minimal urinary excretion and cold hands / feet, a doctor should be consulted immediately.
Even though many cases of gastrointestinal flu (gastroenteritis) with diarrhea and vomiting can be treated at home, a doctor should be notified, especially if the child is not yet 6 months old, does not want to drink, vomits frequently, is severely dehydrated, has a fever, suffers from mood swings (apathetic or easily irritable), has bloody diarrhea or the state of dehydration continues to increase.
How can vomiting itself be treated?
In case of vomiting, the following advice should be followed:
1. Do not eat or drink anything for a few hours.
2. Drink small amounts of water every 3 minutes for 4 to 15 hours.
3. If clear liquids remain in the body for several hours without vomiting and a feeling of hunger is noticeable, one can try to eat small amounts of soft foods, such as bananas, rice, applesauce (BRAT diet) and carrots. Stomach-irritating and difficult-to-digest foods should be avoided up to 24-48 hours after the last vomiting; these include: alcohol, caffeine, fatty, oily and spicy foods, dairy products.
4. If the light diet is well tolerated, the normal diet can be gradually resumed.
Anyone who vomits after taking the contraceptive pill must use other contraception for the rest of the month.
It is important to spare the stomach and compensate for fluid loss.
Fluids must be supplied within the first 24 hours, then the normal diet can be resumed if the body tolerates it.
Clear liquids are more easily absorbed by the stomach, for example:
- Energy drinks
- Ice lolly
Dairy products should be avoided for 24 to 48 h after nausea and vomiting. The enzyme that supports milk digestion is located in the cells of the gastric mucosa. Vomiting can make the body relatively lactose intolerant. Possible signs include abdominal pain, swollen abdomen, vomiting and diarrhea. When you feel better, you can gradually return to a normal diet; start with light food, such as bananas, apples, rice and toast (BRAT diet).
A viral stomach flu heals on its own in most cases. Antibiotics have no effect on viral infections.
Over-the-counter medications such as loperamide (Imodium) and prescription medicines such as metoclopramide (Gastrosil) can relieve symptoms in adults.
Children are not recommended to take these drugs.
Food, diet and nutrition
The following behavioral measures can help relieve the symptoms of vomiting diarrhea in adults:
- Drink plenty of fluids, such as fruit juices, decaffeinated beverages, and broth to replace the lost fluid and electrolytes.
- Often consume small amounts of clear liquid or water ice.
- Gradually introduce soft, easily digestible foods.
- Avoid fats and sweet foods, dairy products, caffeine and alcohol until health is restored.
Children are more at risk of dehydration due to diarrhoea and vomiting due to their small body size.
Older people and people with weakened immune systems should take drinking solutions that counteract dehydration.
Natural remedies for adults for vomiting
1. Ginger Ginger
is an excellent home remedy for the digestive system and works like a natural antiemetic (prevents vomiting).
To do this, you should mix a teaspoon of ginger juice with lemon juice and drink it several times a day.
Alternatively, you can try a cup of ginger tea with some honey or eat a few slices of fresh ginger with or without honey.
2. Cinnamon Cinnamon
helps relieve nausea and vomiting caused by indigestion.
- To do this, add a teaspoon of cinnamon powder to a cup of boiling water.
- This infusion is left to infuse for a few minutes before filtering off the water.
- Optionally, you can also add a spoonful of honey.
- Drink slowly in sips.
mint tea can relieve vomiting.
To do this, add a tablespoon of dried mint leaves to a cup of hot water. The infusion should be left to infuse for 5 to 10 minutes. Filter well and drink this tea.
You can also just chew the mint leaves.
4. Apple cider vinegar Apple cider vinegar can relieve the feeling of nausea and promotes food detoxification thanks to its antimicrobial properties.
To do this, mix a tablespoon of apple cider vinegar and a tablespoon of honey into a glass of water.
Drink and repeat if necessary.
lemon juice Lemon juice contains all the necessary vitamins and minerals to stop vomiting.
Is it possible to prevent vomiting?
Hygiene and hand washing help to curb the spread of intestinal viruses.
Hygiene in the kitchen reduces the risk of food poisoning.
Avoid alcohol overconsumption.
Those who suffer from migraines can try to identify the triggering factors and avoid certain foods, such as cheese.
What is the prognosis?
How long the vomiting lasts depends entirely on the cause, but the prognosis is usually good.
Anyone who vomits regularly due to excessive alcohol consumption has to deal with his alcohol dependence.
In most cases, nausea and vomiting are triggered by short-term viral infections that require no special treatment and should improve within a week.
- Loss of appetite during pregnancy and old age
- Using natural remedies to treat gastritis
- Weight loss in pregnancy and in newborns