Tonsillitis or tonsillitis is an inflammation of the palatine tonsils.
The palatine tonsils are located in the back of the throat and are part of the body’s immune system.
These organs consist of almond-shaped glandular tissue and are located just below the oral cavity.
They are an integral part of the immune system and form white blood cells.
Sometimes the tonsils are attacked by pathogens. As a result, they react with:
Hypertrophy of the tonsils is common, but it can cause complications if not treated in time.
Types of tonsillitis
1. Erythematous tonsillitis – The most common form of tonsillitis is called erythematous and can be caused by a viral or bacterial infection. In this case, beta-hemolytic streptococci (GBS) are usually the causative agents. In erythematous tonsillitis, the tonsils are typically:
2. Acute follicular or exudative tonsillitis – It can be recognized by an exudate that forms white deposits containing pus and bacteria. The tonsils are:
- covered with white coverings,
3. Vesicular tonsillitis – This type of tonsillitis is characterized by the formation of whitish blisters on the tonsils and throat and is caused by the herpes virus.
4. Pseudomembranous tonsillitis – The entire tonsil is covered by a white-grayish membrane and shows white coatings.
5. Ulcerative–necrotizing tonsillitis – There is a necrotic situation of the tonsil.
The most common form is angina Plaut-Vincent.
6. Chronic parenchymatous tonsillitis – Superficially is hyperplasia (increase in size) of tonsillar tissue. The tonsils are greatly enlarged and can cause difficulties in:
7. Chronic cryptogen-cheesy tonsillitis – A condition that usually occurs in adolescents.
As the child grows:
- the lymphatic tissue of the tonsils decreases,
- but supportive connective tissue may remain.
As a result, empty crypts form in the tonsils, where the lymphatic tissue was previously located. Residues of food residues or bacteria are deposited there.
This material degenerates and leads to:
- whitish coatings,
- Bad breath.
Causes of tonsillitis
Bacterial and viral infections can cause tonsillitis. A common cause is the streptococcal bacterium (streptococcal angina). Viruses include:
- Influenza virus
- Epstein-Barr virus
- Parainfluenza virus
- Herpes simplex virus
Tonsil stones In this disease, white, hard deposits appear on the edges of the tonsils: these are:
- dead cells,
Sore throat The term “sore throat” refers to a bacterial or viral infection of the throat.
With a sore throat caused by bacteria, plaque forms in the form of white spots on the tonsils.
Candida orale is nothing more than a mycosis infection (fungus) in the mouth, which can also lead to the appearance of white spots on the tonsils.
Mononucleosis is a viral infection that:
In mononucleosis, the tonsils may be completely covered by a white-grayish coating (pseudomembranous tonsillitis).
Diphtheria is a serious respiratory infection that mainly affects:
- Nasal cavity.
Also with diphtheria, the tonsils are covered by a grayish membrane.
Angina Plaut-Vincent is a bacterial infection associated with the formation of necrotic ulcerative tonsillitis and usually occurs unilaterally.
Pharyngitis is an infection of the throat. This is a part of the neck area that starts at the tonsils and ends in the larynx (vocal cords).
As a rule, pharyngitis occurs together with tonsillitis, in this case it is called angina.
Symptoms of acute tonsillitis
The main symptoms are:
- Inflammation of the tonsils
- Swelling of the tonsils
The swelling is sometimes so pronounced that the airways become narrowed. Among others, the symptoms are:
- Sore throat
- Redness of the tonsils
- Yellow or white plaques on the tonsils
- blisters or painful ulcers in the throat
- Loss of appetite
- Earache, which can also lead to blocked ears
- Difficulty breathing the mouth
- Enlarged cervical lymph nodes
White plaques on the tonsils
The formation of white formations and inflammation of the tonsils indicate pus (tonsillitis purulenta). The plaques are caused by bacterial infections.
Bacterial infections of the tonsils and throat are different from viral infections because they cause:
- white plaques on the tonsils,
- grayish-whitish spots on the tongue.
Is tonsillitis contagious?
In closed rooms, where people stay close to each other for a long time, tonsillitis can be transmitted, for example at school.
In viral tonsillitis, infection is easier to achieve.
The transfer is carried out by:
- physical contact (after touching the mouth),
- sharing toothbrush, cutlery, etc.
How long is the incubation period?
As a rule, the time between infection and the appearance of symptoms is about 3-4 days.
Complications of acute tonsillitis
Complications include infections with pus formation:
Other possible long-term complications include:
- Inflammation of the kidneys (glomerulonephritis)
Chronic or recurrent tonsillitis is a complication of acute tonsillitis.
Tonsillitis is called chronic if it occurs at least five times a year.
This is a typical disease of:
- Young people under the age of 15.
When a person reaches adulthood, the tonsils shrink as the immune system is mature.
Nevertheless, episodes of chronic tonsillitis also occur in adults. However, they are rare.
Causes of chronic tonsillitis
A common cause of this inflammation is the same virus that causes a cold. However, chronic tonsillitis can also be caused by bacteria. Streptococcus pyogenes is often responsible.
This pathogen is the same one that leads to a sore throat.
This condition can be easily transmitted from a sick person to a healthy one.
Germ transmission occurs in both viral and bacterial microorganisms.
Symptoms of chronic tonsillitis
- Redness, overheating and swelling
- Sore throat
- White or yellow plaque formations on the tonsil surfaces
- Discomfort when swallowing food, water or saliva
- Enlargement of cervical lymph nodes
- Recurrent and persistent headaches
These symptoms can occur in young children, but they may not always communicate.
Parents need to watch for signs such as loss of appetite.
- when they open their mouths to eat
- or when swallowing.
In addition, their irritability increases and their facial expressions seem to indicate neck pain.
The tonsils are attached to the base of the tongue. They have the important task of forming white blood cells, which are useful against viral or bacterial infections.
An infection of the tonsils of the tongue can:
- or viral.
The infection causes the inflammation of these organs at the base of the tongue.
This disease is also called tonsillitis.
The enlargement of this lymphoid tissue can cause discomfort.
With inflamed tongue tonsils, eating can be a painful and discouraging process.
Because every time a bite is swallowed, you feel pain.
Streptococcus or Haemophilus influenzae are the bacteria responsible for tonsillitis.
Viral infections are caused by:
- Epstein-Barr virus,
Tumor of the tongue tonsil
Cancers associated with the tongue tonsil can:
- squamous cell carcinoma (PEC)
- or lymphoma.
A PEC results in:
- uncontrolled growth of epithelial cells of the tonsils,
- Ulceration in the tonsils
Such an ulcer can be the result of:
- excessive alcohol consumption.
Treatment of tonsillitis
Most cases of mild tonsillitis do not require medical intervention.
Self-treatment and the use of old home remedies shorten the recovery time.
Rest is essential for recovery.
Dry air can make symptoms worse. Therefore, the use of a humidifier in the room is recommended. Alternatively, you can use a kettle to keep the room air moist. The water vapor helps to keep the air moist.
It is recommended:
- cigarette smoke,
- Avoid varnishes and similar substances.
These substances irritate the throat and can aggravate the condition.
Drugs and antibiotics
If tonsillitis is caused by a bacterial infection, the doctor prescribes treatment with antibiotics. As a rule, he will prescribe oral intake of penicillin for 10 days.
If the child is allergic to penicillin, the doctor prescribes an alternative drug.
If tonsillitis is caused by Streptococcus pyogenes, amoxicillin (Augmentin) is indicated.
The child must take the full dose of prescribed antibiotics, even after the symptoms have completely subsided. If this is not done, you can:
- an exacerbation of the infection occurs
- or the spread of the pathogens occurs to other areas of the body.
If antibiotics are not taken completely, the risk of
- rheumatic fever,
- severe kidney infections.
However, these complications occur almost exclusively in developing countries.
The doctor may prescribe nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for the pain, such as gabrils, to accompany the antibiotics.
Surgical intervention to remove the tonsils (tonsillectomy) is performed in patients with recurrent tonsillitis, chronic tonsillitis (more than a month) or bacterial tonsillitis that does not pass (does not respond to antibiotic treatment).
A tonsillectomy is also performed if the tonsillitis causes complications that are difficult to treat, for example:
- Obstructive sleep apnea
- Breathing difficulties
- Hemorrhagic tonsillitis
- Difficulty swallowing, especially with meat and other large chunks of food
- Abscess that does not improve despite antibiotic therapy
Tonsillectomy is usually performed under inpatient conditions and is associated with a hospital stay of five to eight days. The recovery time is 7-14 days.
Natural remedies for swollen tonsils
- Gargling with antiseptic substances helps to eliminate the bacteria.
Gargling with salt water is useful for:
– acute and
– chronic tonsillitis.
Repeating this therapy several times a day helps against sore throat when swallowing.
You can rinse with a soda-based drink (Pepsi or Coca Cola).
- Lemon and honey – Put the juice of one lemon in a glass of water, add 4 teaspoons of honey and a pinch of salt. Drink this solution in sips.
- Put 2 tablespoons of fenugreek in a liter of water and heat the mixture for 30 minutes. Let cool for some time and then gargle with this solution.
This remedy has proven high effectiveness.
- Another option is the juice of centrifuged vegetables. You can combine the extract of cucumber, beet and carrot; the ratio should be 300 ml of carrot juice and 100 ml of beet and cucumber juice each. You can prepare these centrifuged juices according to taste.
- Boil 12 grams of banafsha flowers (scented violets) in ginger tea and drink at night. The tea must be strained and drunk hot.
Diet and nutrition in tonsillitis
In the case of infections, it is generally advised to eat little and exclusively natural foods.
The organism can recover very quickly if it does not have to spend energy on digestion.
According to natural medicine:
- A short-term fasting cure (1 to 3 days) can be the most effective therapy.
- Alternatively, it may be enough to eat fruits and vegetables for a few days.
There is a general belief that hot chicken broth can help; in reality, this fluid absorbs the toxins contained in the muscles of the animals.
Another common mistake lies in the use of cow’s milk as a medicine; actually, this drink can aggravate the situation because it is not intended for humans.
How long does tonsillitis last? When does it pass? Prognosis
Acute tonsillitis lasts 4-5 days, but if it has become chronic, it lasts for at least 1 month.
- Symptoms of pharyngitis and remedies
- Symptoms of sinusitis and remedies
- Inflammation of the inner ear: symptoms and causes