Burns: what to do? Remedy


Treatment of burns: first aid

For many minor second-degree burns (with low spread), home remedies are sufficient for their healing and to avoid other problems.

In the case of extensive and severe burns, emergency services must be immediately armoured (112) or the emergency room must be visited to avoid possible complications (infection and hypovolemic shock).

Rinse the burn with water and cool
Rinse the burned skin with cold water until the burn pain passes.
The cold water rinse interrupts the pain only after 15-30 minutes.
The cold water lowers the temperature of the skin and stops the exacerbation of the burn.

Cleaning the burn wound
Wash your hands before cleaning a burn wound. Do not touch the burn wound with your hands or dirty objects, because open blisters can easily become infected.

Do not open
bubbles Clean the burnt area with water.
The burnt skin could come loose during washing.
Gently dab the cleaned area with a clean cloth or gauze.

If the burn is limited to a smaller area, you can apply an ointment containing antibiotics. Ointments such as bacitracin (Baneocin) or polymyxin may be helpful.
Do not apply spray, oil or butter to burns, as this will lead to heat build-up within the burn wound.

Bandage burns If the skin is burned or has closed blisters, a bandage
is not required.
If the burnt region is threatened with contamination or irritation by the clothing, a bandage should be applied.
If the skin is injured or there are open blisters, a bandage is required.
To prevent infection, a clean dressing change should be made every time a bandage has become wet or dirty.

If a bandage adheres to the burn wound, it can be immersed in water to make it easier to loosen.
If possible, a non-stick bandage should be used, gauze with silicone pad or Hyal O4 do not adhere to burn wounds.

It is advisable to consult a doctor to have the blisters checked.

How is the association created?
There are many dressing material products on the market.

  • Do not wrap the bandage too tightly to avoid pressure on the burn wound.
  • Do not apply bandages to the hand, arm or leg. This can lead to swelling.
  • There are many over-the-counter medications for burns.
  • Follow the package leaflet.

If the burn affects a leg or arm, the limbs should be kept elevated as much as possible for the first 24-48 hours to reduce swelling.
Move the burned leg or arm normally so as not to promote stiffness by immobilization for too long.

What to do in case of minor burns?

Patients with burns can take the following measures:

  • Immerse arms, hands, fingers, legs, feet or toes in a bowl of fresh water that is not too cold.
  • Apply cold compresses for burns on the face and body.
  • Ice should not be used as it can cause tissue damage.
  • Remove any jewelry, rings or garments that may become too tight if the skin swells.

Therapy for burns

According to the severity of the burn, the doctor may prescribe:

  1. Infusions. Doctors infuse fluids through a vein (intravenously) to prevent dehydration and organ failure.
  2. Painkillers. Burns can be very painful. In many cases, morphine is required, especially before a dressing change.
  3. Anti-anxiety medications can be useful.
  4. Burn ointments. The doctor may prescribe various ointments to:
    • maintain moisture,
    • relieve pain,
    • prevent infections,
    • to promote healing.
  5. Antibiotics. If an infection develops, the doctor may prescribe an intravenous or local antibiotic (for example, gentamycin ointment).
  6. Tetanus protection. The doctor could recommend tetanus protection in the case of burn wounds.

Surgical interventions and medical procedures

In some serious cases, one of the following procedures may be necessary:
1. Ventilation. With burns on the face and neck, the throat may swell.
In this case, the doctor may insert a tube into the trachea to ventilate the lungs.
2. Feeding tube. According to conventional medicine, the body needs a lot of energy to heal from the burn injuries.
To ensure adequate nutrition, a tube can be placed over the nose to the stomach.
Natural medicine, on the other hand, recommends a fasting cure lasting a few days, because the body must concentrate its energies on healing instead of digestion.
3. Decompression. If necrosis completely encloses a limb after burn (scab), blood circulation can be reduced or blocked.
A scab that completely encloses the chest can cause shortness of breath. If the scab is removed in several places, this leads to pressure relief.
4. Skin grafts. To replace scar tissue after deep burns, some pieces of healthy body skin are required. The skin of a donor (corpse or pig skin) can be a temporary solution.
5. Reconstruction. Plastic surgeons can improve the scarring aspect after burns and the mobility of joints affected by scars.

Physiotherapy for burns
If the burned skin area is large, and especially if joints are involved, physiotherapy treatment with exercises is required to stretch the skin and keep the joints flexible.
Other types of exercises are designed to improve coordination and muscle strength.

If small children or infants suffer burns, parents should massage the affected areas as soon as the inflammation has subsided. For best results, massages may need to be performed for months.
Even if the skin changes persist, the child can fully regain movement:

  • without pain,
  • without future consequences.

Natural remedies and home remedies to cure minor burns

In the days following burning, some natural remedies may be helpful; These include:

  1. Honey is a natural remedy used for burns.
    Covering burns with this food has been shown to reduce scarring.
    Natural honey has an antiseptic and healing effect.
  2. An effective and very helpful home remedy for healing is diluted vinegar.
    Wet the burnt area with a cloth soaked in vinegar water.
    Apply the vinegar envelope whenever it seems necessary.
  3. Among the home remedies, it is especially the gel of aloe vera a good choice for the treatment of minor burns.
    Apply the gel of aloe vera directly to the burn wound. This substance has a regenerating effect and helps to cool the burned skin.
    Since the active ingredient is quickly broken down, the juice from inside the leaves is very useful.
    Fresh aloe vera very quickly relieves the pain of minor burns.
  4. Arnica can be applied to superficial burns, because it has an anti-inflammatory effect.

Zinc oxide for the treatment of burns

Locally applied zinc oxide helps treat skin irritation such as:

  • Diaper rash
  • cracked skin,
  • minor burns, for example on the stove or on hotplates.

Do not use zinc oxide in the following cases:

Severe burns
People with severe burns or deep wounds must not use zinc oxide. In case of severe burns, immediate medical intervention is required.

Allergic reaction
people with allergic reactions to zinc oxide, must immediately seek medical help; reactions include:

  • urticaria (hives),
  • Respiratory problems
  • Swelling on the face.

Warnings and precautions
People with an allergy to zinc, lanolin or cod liver oil should not use zinc oxide locally.
This drug must not be used in fungal or bacterial infections.

How long does a combustion take?

The healing times and scarring depend on the severity of the burn and the size of the affected area.

First degree incineration

  • For first-degree burns, the healing phase can take 3 to 10 days.
  • The duration may depend on the affected skin area.
  • The skin may peel during healing.

Second degree combustion (smaller extent)

  • The healing times are about 2-3 weeks.
  • As a rule, no scars remain.

Second degree combustion (greater extent)

  • Healing times range from 3 to 8 weeks.
  • Visible scars remain on the skin.

Third degree
Healing takes a long time, several months.
The risk of infection is very high.
Remaining characters are:

  • scars after surgical procedures (skin grafting),
  • scars with fibrous tissue,
  • Rigidity.

Fourth degree burns
A fourth-degree burn does not heal on its own and requires at least one operation or stitching of the wound.

A study was conducted in a specialized center for severely burned patients: Division of Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, performed by Parrett BM, Pomahac B, Demling RH, Orgill DP.
The study was conducted on 21 patients, with approximately 24% burned body surface.
To save the limbs, an average of 8 operations were necessary.
Four patients (18%) had to have at least one limb amputated.
The patients who were operated with the “flap closure” method (the tissue is transplanted together with the blood vessels) needed fewer operations to save the limbs than those who underwent the “graft” method.
The average hospital stay was 76 days.

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