Infertility in men and women

Male or female infertility is a problem that affects many couples and has increased in recent years.

Infertility can be called idiopathic (inexplicable) if one does not know the cause, in other cases it is provoked by a disease.

After what time is it called infertility?

If pregnancy does not occur in a couple after 12 months of unprotected intercourse, it is possible that there are problems regarding fertility, regardless of the number of attempts.


Primary causes of female infertility

Primary infertility means that no pregnancy could be completed to the end.

Endometriosis Endometriosis
is a condition in which tissues that should be inside the uterus grow outside.
In most cases, there are no symptoms of endometriosis. In some situations, pelvic pain, painful intercourse, and painful menstrual cycles may occur.
With this pathology, the doctor may try to surgically remove the tissues and clear the fallopian tubes.
Drugs for infertility and artificial insemination can help you conceive.

Problems with ovulation
Many women suffer from problems with ovulation, which do not allow the release of mature eggs into the uterus.
The symptoms of this disorder consist of abnormally weak or strong cycles, too low frequency of menstruation, etc.

Obstruction of the fallopian tubes
In some cases, the fallopian tube is blocked or injured. As a result, the sperm cannot reach the egg and carry out fertilization. This problem can occur due to pelvic inflammatory disease or infection with a transmissible STD, etc.

Polycystic ovary syndrome
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a condition that prevents the growth of eggs. This pathology occurs along with hormonal imbalance and irregular ovulation. The presence of PCOS can manifest itself in obesity, acne, and irregular menstrual cycles. Women with this problem should reduce their body weight and be prescribed fertility promotion medications to improve the chances of conception.

Anovulatory infertility occurs in women who do not have a menstrual cycle or irregular, much too short (about 20 days or less) or far too long cycles (over 35 days).

Thyroid disorders and fertility
During pregnancy, thyroid disorders are very common. They have a significant impact on fertility.
The thyroid disorders consist mainly of two different types:

  • Hypothyroidism is characterized by reduced production of thyroid hormones.
  • Hyperthyroidism consists of an endocrine hyperfunction in which too many thyroid hormones are produced. Usually, women with hypothyroidism have more difficulty getting pregnant than women with hyperthyroidism.

In hypothyroidism, the level of thyroid hormones is lowered and bodily functions are significantly slowed down.
The physical symptoms of hypothyroidism are: weight gain, fatigue, joint and muscle pain, digestive problems, etc. Another distinct effect is an irregular menstrual cycle.

Women with hypothyroidism suffer from increased menstrual flow that lasts longer than usual.

Secondary infertility

The inability to conceive a child after one or two children have already been born is called secondary infertility.

Causes of secondary infertility in women
One of the most common causes of secondary or primary infertility is old age. After the age of 35, conception becomes more difficult. As a rule, the couple tries to take some time after the first child.
After a few years, the couple plans another child, usually between the ages of 30 and 40.
Advanced age reduces the chances of conceiving a child.
Polycystic ovary or polycystic ovary syndrome (which leads to ovulation disorders) can also be considered responsible for infertility.

In women, transmissible STDs such as chlamydia can be one of the causes of secondary infertility.
A previous ectopic pregnancy can cause damage to the fallopian tubes, making conception difficult.

A uterine fibroma can cause problems with the implantation of the egg in the uterus.
The lack of cervical mucus (which ensures sperm motility) can lead to difficulties in fertilizing the egg.

After a caesarean section, a new pregnancy in the first few years can be difficult or impossible, even if you do not know the causes for sure.

Obesity and fertility
In women, excess weight causes hormonal imbalance, which leads to complications associated with the menstrual cycle and ovulation.
The body’s fat cells (such as visceral fat in the abdominal area) promote the production of harmful acids and hormones.
Due to excessive body fat, women may suffer from symptoms of “estrogen dominance,” which is a condition in which there is an excess of estrogens in the body.

In addition, estrogen is an essential component of oral contraceptives.
If there is an excess of estrogens in the body, the eggs do not reach the wall of the ovaries (as in contraception through the pill) and fertilization is extremely difficult.
If the function of the ovaries is altered, this influences ovulation and thus leads to sterility.
Obesity also affects women’s menstrual cycle and increases the risk of spontaneous abortion, high blood pressure and pregnancy-related diabetes mellitus during pregnancy.

Symptoms of fertility disorders in women

Irregular menstrual cycle
If the menstrual cycles do not occur every month, there is a possibility of fertility disorder. If the monthly cycle is very short (less than 24 days) or too long (more than 35 days), this can be a cause for concern.

Disorders of menstrual bleeding
During menstruation, very heavy or very weak bleeding can mean that there are serious problems.
Blood loss that lasts 3 to 7 days indicates a normal cycle.
However, if the bleeding lasts longer than 7 days and is accompanied by painful and severe abdominal cramps, this may indicate the presence of a fertility-related problem.

Chronic health problems
Women suffering from the following diseases may be prone to sterility:

  • Hypothyroidism
  • Diabetes
  • Depression
  • Gastrointestinal ulcers

If one suffers from these disorders, one should talk to the doctor to avoid taking medications that hinder conception

Recurrent miscarriage
It is said that women who have miscarriages suffer from fertility disorders. If the third pregnancy also ends in miscarriage, this can be a sign of sterility.

Cancer and transmissible sexually transmitted diseases
Women who have had cancer in the past may have problems with motherhood; chemotherapy may have impaired conception. In addition, women who have suffered from a transmissible infectious STD (such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, etc.) may have difficulty carrying a pregnancy to term.

Causes of infertility in men

Environmental factors
The quality of health has deteriorated significantly due to pollution, contact with industrial waste, toxic pesticides, increase in temperature, radiation and the like.
This affects overall health and in some cases it can have a direct impact on the man’s fertility.

Psychological factors
Psychological factors such as stress, work pressure, responsibility, coping with mistakes and any other negative forces can also be dangerous.

Health Factors Testicular Problems ~ Fertility Factors
Affecting Fertility Such as:

  • High FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone)
  • Pain and swelling of the testicles
  • Irregular dimensions of the two testicles
  • Trauma and testicular torsion
  • Difficulties in ejaculation
  • Premature ejaculation

Sperm problems

  • Abnormal spermatocytes
  • Decreased spermatocyte count
  • Low sperm motility

Hormonal problems

  • Too low, too high or missing production of testosterone
  • Impotence
  • Difficulties of sexual functions
  • Insomnia

Infertility in men can be caused by:

  • Erectile dysfunction
  • Age
  • Vasectomy
  • Varicocele
  • Health disorders such as liver disease, genital infections, autoimmune diseases, sickle cell anemia (an inherited disease), prostatitis, epididymis, hemochromatosis, cystic fibrosis and obesity.

Acquired/external factors
One must also consider some acquired factors. These include characteristics that are not caused by health, external or psychological problems, but by the man himself. Some of them are:

  1. Smoking – adversely affects the quality of sperm.
  2. Unhealthy lifestyle – for example, lack of physical activity, nutrient-poor and inadequate diet, etc.

Secondary infertility in men

In men, too, the increase in age may be responsible for infertility.
After the age of 35, the fertility rate in men decreases.
A low spermatocyte count can be one of the main reasons for infertility.
In some cases, the sperm die or are unable to swim, making fertilization difficult or impossible.
Some conditions or hormonal disorders can lead to an immune response, in which the body develops antibodies against sperm, which then die.
Erection problems and early ejaculation can be causes of infertility.
There may be impaired sperm quality that leads to infertility and is caused by diseases, poor diet and lifestyle changes.


Signs of male and female infertility

In men and women, the most common sign of infertility is that the couple is unable to conceive even after a year of unprotected sex.
If the man is not interested in sexual intercourse (for a longer period of time) and gives reasons such as fatigue, stress or lack of desire, this may be a sign of sterility.
Inability to erect is a physical sign of sterility.
If ejaculation does not occur in men, this is considered a sign of sterility.
A sterile man does not feel well and you can notice this condition by looking at it (he has a pale skin and a generally tired appearance).

Infertility and depression

Many couples who do not have children of their own suffer from depression.

Depression due to infertility
This type of depression consists of a mixture of many emotions from jealousy to obsession, anger, sadness, self-doubt, negative self-image, and loneliness.
In these moments, women begin to blame themselves.
The feeling of guilt becomes strong when they become aware that the spouse, parents-in-law and other relatives are desperately waiting for family growth.
When women feel that they are depriving others of this happiness, they feel even more guilty and lose all self-confidence. In this mental state, it becomes difficult to deal with depression.

Diagnosis and examinations of male and female infertility

The doctors to turn to are the andrologist for the man or the gynecologist for the woman.

For women

  • Blood test. The hormones must be examined: FSH, LH, progesterone, prolactin, estrogens and thyroid hormones.
  • Ultrasound. Transvaginal ultrasound reveals abnormal formations in the vagina and uterus.
  • This examination serves to detect malformations of the uterus. It is an X-ray examination of the uterus with the help of contrast agents.
  • Hysterosonography: In this examination, the normal formation of the uterine cavity and the patency of the fallopian tubes are examined by injecting a saline solution into the uterine cavity.
  • This is used to screen a woman for a transmissible STD.
  • Genetic testing — To detect possible chromosomal abnormalities in a person.

For men

  • The spermiogram or analysis of the sperm fluid is used to examine whether there are deviations in appearance, motility, number and other parameters of the sperm.
  • testicular biopsy,
  • study of semen fructose,
  • urine test after ejaculation,
  • analysis of leukocytes in semen,
  • study of sperm antibodies,
  • Test of sperm function — To determine the fertilization capacity of the sperm,
  • Echoography.

Natural remedies for infertility in men and women

Acupuncture to treat fertility
In women: The use of acupuncture in the treatment of fertility is a hotly debated topic. However, the statistics show that in vitro fertilization treatment is beneficial for the functional problems.
Acupuncture promotes fertility by improving blood circulation in the reproductive organs and, above all, restoring the hormonal balance of the woman.

In men: This therapy is a panacea, because in men drugs against fertility disorders are relatively low.
Acupuncture helps maintain hormonal balance and improve kidney function by increasing sperm vitality and quality.

recommended by conventional medicine 
Coenzyme Q10 supplements can improve male fertility because this antioxidant prevents sperm oxidation.
Other useful substances for increasing testosterone and sperm motility include:

  1. Selenium
  2. Zinc
  3. Linseed
  4. Vitamin C and E.

Homeopathic treatments for sterility
Here is a list of homeopathic medicines that are very useful in female infertility and can help eliminate underlying causes:

  • Sepia C6: Helps women release healthy eggs from the ovary. In men, Sepia C6 helps to improve the sensation of pleasure and thus increase fertility.
  • Silicea: A compound of silica and oxygen that mainly serves women with a weakened immune system. Silicea helps restore lost strength and increases the overall function of the immune system and fertility.
  • Lycopodium: A very effective remedy for women suffering from abdominal weakness and vaginal dryness in men, it helps against various erectile dysfunctions, mainly with underlying causes.

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