Female and male fertility

Does age affect male and female fertility?
Yes. In women, fertility begins to decline around age 30 and then declines even more rapidly from age 35.
Most women are able to conceive naturally and give birth to a healthy child when they become pregnant at the age of 35.

After 35 years, the percentage of women suffering from infertility, spontaneous abortion or problems with the child increases. From the age of 40, only 2 out of 5 women have the opportunity to have a child.

In the UK, the middle age at which women undergo therapy through in vitro fertilization (IVF) is increasing. This reflects the increase in infertility due to age. However, the success rate of IVF in women over the age of 40 using their own eggs is low and has not increased much in the last decade.

Men can remain fertile much longer than women. Although male fertility decreases with age, it occurs gradually in men.
While many men around age 50 and older remain fertile, the percentage of men with sperm disorders increases with age.


Age and fertility

The ability of rapid fertilization depends on age. Women are most fertile between the ages of 20 and 24. It can take much longer to get pregnant if you’re in your late 30s or early 40s.

Over 80 percent of couples conceive within a year if they stop taking contraceptives and have regular intercourse (i.e. sexual intercourse every two or three days).

Because the natural conception rates are so good, one should seek medical help from a gynecologist only if fertilization has not occurred after a year of regular sexual intercourse (two or three times a week).

What are the causes of female fertility problems?

Many diseases can contribute to fertility disorders in women, including:

  • ovulation and hormonal disorders;
  • uterine diseases;
  • Problems of the fallopian tubes: fallopian tube occlusion, often caused by inflammatory pelvic diseases (infection of the female reproductive organs);
  • endometriosis, a condition in which the tissue that normally lines the inside of the uterus (endometrium) develops outside the uterus;
  • Problems of the cervix: estrogen deficiency, infections, damage to the cervical glands can provoke changes in cervical mucus, which can hinder the entry of sperm.

Age is also crucial for female fertility. Delaying pregnancy can reduce the possibility of conception.
An older woman’s eggs are not fertilized as easily as those of a younger woman, and they do not develop properly after fertilization.

Examination and blood tests
When the admission interview is over, screening for infertility will likely begin with a physical exam and blood tests to check for the following elements:

  • female hormone levels,
  • Thyroid hormone
  • Prolactin
  • male hormones,
  • presence of HIV,
  • Hepatitis virus.

The physical exam may involve the pelvis to look for sexually transmitted diseases: chlamydia, gonorrhea, or other infectious STDs that may contribute to infertility.

The doctor may do other blood tests at the time of the woman’s menstrual cycle. For example, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) should be tested on the second and third day of the cycle. The luteinizing hormone occurs halfway through the cycle (in the middle of the luteal phase). After this period and also seven days after ovulation, further tests may be required.
After ovulation, the doctor also checks estrogen and progesterone levels to compare them with the result of the second and third day of the cycle.

Fertility tests in women

  • Determination of basal body temperature. If this has not already been done, the doctor may ask to start measuring basal body temperature to control ovulation. Although basal body temperature measurement is a technique that has been used for many years, professionals do not believe it is as accurate as other tests for ovulation.
  • Vaginal smear: used to detect infections of the uterus or cervix.
  • Postcoital test. This examination requires sexual intercourse a few hours before the doctor’s visit in order to take a sample of the cervical mucus for a microscopic examination. This is a way to test both sperm viability and interaction with cervical mucus.
  • Transvaginal (pelvis) sonography. The doctor may recommend an echography to examine the uterus and ovaries (ovaries). Often the doctor can determine whether the follicles in the ovaries are functioning normally. Thus, echography is performed 15 days before the start of the woman’s menstrual cycle.
  • Hysterosalpingography. The doctor may also advise hysterosalpingography. In this procedure, after injecting a contrast agent into the uterus through the cervix and vagina, a series of X-rays of the fallopian tubes are performed. Hysterosalpingography is used to diagnose damage to the uterus and blockages of the fallopian tubes. If one of the fallopian tubes is blocked, the obstacle should be visible through the X-rays, because the contrast medium does not allow the X-rays to pass through. Normally, hysterosalpingography is performed between the sixth and thirteenth day of the cycle.
  • Hysteroscopy. If there is a problem with hysterosalpingography, the doctor may perform a hysteroscopy during this examination, a thin instrument is inserted into the uterus via the cervix to allow the doctor to see and photograph the area to reveal a problem.

Male fertility

Although many still believe that fertility is a “woman’s problem”, in about 40% of sterile couples the man is the sole cause or co-cause of the inability to conceive.
One third of infertility cases can be attributed to male problems, including a low sperm count.
Age plays a lesser role in men, an egg can still be fertilized at an advanced age, at the age of 60 and even after the age of 70.

Fertility studies in men

Sperm analysis or spermiogram
A specialist evaluates the sperm count, shape, movement and other sizes. In general, a high number of sperm with a normal shape indicates high fertility. But exceptions are frequent. Many men with low sperm count or abnormal semen are still fertile. About 15% of sterile men have normal sperm and semen.

If the first sperm analysis is normal, the doctor may order a second test to confirm the results. Usually, two normal tests mean that the man does not have any significant infertility problems.

Physical examination

A thorough physical examination can reveal a varicocele and provide clues to hormonal disorders. You can measure testicular size. Ideally, a urologist should perform the physical examination.

  • Hormonal evaluation – Testosterone and many hormones produced in the brain control sperm production. However, in 97% of sterile men, hormones are not the main problem.
  • Analysis of white blood cells in semen.
  • Examination of anti-sperm antibodies – The presence of antibodies can contribute to infertility.
  • Sperm function test – determining the fertilization capacity of the sperm.
  • Ultrasound – examination for: varicocele (varicose veins), blockages in the prostate canal, scrotum, seminal vesicles and spray channels.
  • Genetic test– Genetic testing can identify specific barriers to fertility and sperm problems.

Causes of non-disease-related male infertility

Male infertility has many causes, from hormonal imbalances to physical, psychological and/or behavioral problems. In addition, fertility reflects the “general” health of men. Men who lead a healthy lifestyle are more likely to produce healthy sperm. The following list shows some lifestyles that negatively affect male fertility:

    • Smoking – Significantly reduces both sperm count and sperm motility
    • Protracted use of marijuana and other drugs
    • Chronic alcohol abuse
    • Use of anabolic steroids – Causes sterility and testicular shrinkage
    • Too intense exercise – Causes high levels of adrenal hormones, leading to low testosterone and subsequently sterility
  • Insufficient intake of vitamin C and zinc in the diet
  • Wearing tight underwear – Increases the temperature in the scrotum and causes a decrease in sperm production
  • exposure to environmental hazards and toxic substances such as lead, paints, pesticides, radiation, radioactive substances, mercury, benzene, heavy metals and boron
  • Anemia and malnutrition
  • Drugs for tumor treatment, chemotherapy, for high blood pressure or high cholesterol, antibiotics, antifungal drugs and antidepressants, for example gentamicin, metronidazole and bromazepam (Lexotanil)
  • Cyclists suffer from infertility because they wear tight pants when cycling, which has a negative effect on fertility
  • Excessive stress

Changing these circumstances can improve the man’s fertility and if a couple has a desire to have children, this list should be considered.

Fertility of men with only one testicle
If a man has only one testicle, this should not cause fertility problems, but in some cases fertility may be predisposed to it:

  1. The testicle did not develop at birth,
  2. Twisting of the seminal canal, which led to circulatory disorder of the testicles.

Benefits of a natural diet for fertility

  • It provides antioxidants, vitamins and minerals that protect the health of eggs and sperm from free radical damage.
  • It brings the body into hormonal balance by providing the necessary fats for the production and function of hormones.
  • It provides the body with many vitamins, minerals, antioxidants and other nutrients for optimal health.
  • It can reduce the likelihood of spontaneous abortion due to insulin resistance and damage to DNA from free radicals.
  • It supports a healthy reproductive system.
  • It promotes energy and vitality.

Therapy for female and male fertility

Drug and surgical therapy

Surgical intervention. For example, a varicocele or a blocked vas deferens can be corrected surgically.
Infection treatment. An antibiotic can cure an infection of the reproductive system, but it does not always restore fertility.
Therapy for sexual disorders. Medication or therapeutic advice can improve fertility when diseases such as erectile dysfunction or premature ejaculation are present.
Drug and hormonal therapy. The doctor may recommend hormone replacement therapy or medication if the infertility is due to high or low hormone levels, or if the body has problems with hormone use. Clomiphene citrate is a medicine used to induce ovulation.

What should you eat? Fertility Dietary Guidelines

Conventional medicine recommends:

  • Eating
    plenty of organically grown fruits and vegetables Conventional products contain harmful herbicides and pesticides that negatively affect fertility in both men and women.
  • You should eat organic dairy products raw, wholesome and from grazing animals.
    Organic, raw, whole foods and grazing dairy products are the best choice in terms of dairy. However, one should know that dairy products such as milk and cheese can cause congestion in the intestines.
    There are many healthy alternatives to dairy products, such as fresh almond milk or hemp milk.
  • One should eat especially cold-water fish.
    Fish contain important essential fatty acids (omega 3). These fatty acids help with hormone production, reduce inflammation and serve to regulate the menstrual cycle. Fish is also an excellent source of protein and vitamin A. Due to possible mercury concentrations, deep-sea fish such as tuna, swordfish and Chilean sea bass should be avoided.
  • Cereals should only be eaten in natural and whole grain form.
    White cereals that have been processed and refined, such as in white bread and semolina pasta, as well as white rice should be avoided. On the other hand, you should choose bread made from whole grain or sprouted wheat, whole grain rice or quinoa.
  • High-fiber foods should be eaten at every meal.
    Fiber serves to regulate sugar in the blood and helps reduce fertility problems such as polycystic ovary (PCOS) and immune system problems. In addition, they promote a healthy hormone balance.
  • You should not eat any types of soy if they are not fermented like miso and tempeh.
    Foods with soy have the property of mimicking estrogens. If there is hypothyroidism, you should completely refrain from soy.
  • Refined sugars or fruit juices (unless they are fresh) should be avoided.
    Pasteurized fruit juices such as apple juice in the bottle, orange juice and other fruit juices in the bottle contain concentrated sugar, which can disrupt blood sugar levels and negatively affect the immune system.
  • Drink plenty of pure water.

Foods to avoid

  • Sugar, soda and pasteurized juices
  • Caffeine
  • Soy products
  • GMO food

Nutrition in natural medicine
There are two natural diets that have helped many people heal without taking medication:

  1. The blood group diet according to Dr. D’Adamo/Mozzi.
    According to this nutritional theory, infertility is caused by the consumption of milk and dairy products.
    Depending on the blood type, some foods may be consumed, while others should be avoided because they can cause diseases and symptoms.
  2. The vegan diet/raw food diet belongs to the theory of natural hygiene. Hygienists recommend eating raw foods: fruits, vegetables, legumes, nuts and seeds. Absolutely avoid animal proteins (meat, fish, eggs and dairy products) and reduce as much as possible cooked foods, allowed are boiled potatoes. With the right combination of foods and natural foods, fertility can return.
    Important recommendations of hygienism:
  • Only eat when you’re hungry.
  • Avoid salt and other spices.
  • Take a maximum of three meals a day, main meal is lunch.
  • Eat fruit for breakfast, especially sour or juicy fruits.

“Superfoods” for natural fertility enhancement

Maca is a wonderful superfood from Peru, which serves to balance hormones, keep the eggs healthy, the number of sperm and keep the sperm healthy. It is also a tonic for the endocrine system.
Maca also helps multiply progesterone when the body has too little of this important hormone.

Queen bee food juice (royal jelly)
Royal jelly is rich in vitamins A, B, C, D and E. In addition, it contains minerals, including calcium and iron, as well as all the essential amino acids and has antibacterial properties that stimulate the immune system.

Propolis and bee pollen
Bee pollen contains 50% more protein than beef and is rich in every type of vitamins and minerals. Propolis is a potent stimulant for the immune system and helps fight inflammation.

Spirulina, wheatgrass and green leafy
FertiliGreens is a supplement that contains some superfoods: green leafy vegetables, wheatgrass, spirulina, wild barley and nourishing herbs that give the body nutrients, minerals, vitamins, enzymes and chlorophyll.

Ginseng is a plant that increases sexual desire and fertility.

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