Venereal diseases

Communicable STDs (or venereal diseases) are pathological and spread through sexual intercourse with someone who is infected.
A disease caused by sexual activity can occur in the mouth, anus, vagina or on the penis.

Heterosexuals or homosexuals, married or single, are all susceptible to transmissible STDs.

Venereal diseases can affect men and women of all ages and backgrounds, including children.

Transmissible STDs have become much more common in recent years because you are sexually active at a much younger age, have multiple partners and do not take preventive measures to reduce the possibility of infection.

Those affected can transmit a communicable disease to their sexual partner even if they have no symptoms.
Often venereal diseases can be present without causing any symptoms, especially in women (for example, chlamydia, genital herpes or gonorrhea).

This can also be the case with some men.
Health problems and long-term consequences of sexually transmitted diseases are more serious for women than for men.
Some transmissible STDs can cause pelvic infections, such as pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), which can lead to an abscess of fallopian tubes. The abscess, in turn, can cause scars in the reproductive organs, which can lead to an extrauterine pregnancy (a pregnancy outside the uterus), infertility or even death.

Human papillomavirus (HPV infection) is known to be a cause of cervical cancer.
Many sexually transmitted diseases can be transmitted from a mother to her child before, during or after birth.
Since the spread of infection is similar for all transmissible STDs, a person can ingest more than one disease through sexual intercourse.
For example, many people (about 50%) become infected with gonorrhea and chlamydia at the same time.

As a rule, transmissible sexually transmitted diseases are caused by viruses and bacteria.


Read more about sexually transmitted diseases



Bacterial vaginosis


Genital herpes






Symptoms of transmissible sexually transmitted diseases

Sometimes there are no symptoms with transmissible STDs.

If symptoms exist, they may have one or more of the following signs:

  • Growths, sores or warts on the mouth, anus, penis or vagina
  • swelling or redness near the penis or vagina
  • Erythema
  • Painful urination
  • Weight loss, , night sweats
  • Abdominal pain, fever and chills
  • Lymph node enlargement
  • Yellowing of the skin (jaundice)
  • Discharge from the penis or vagina (vaginal secretion may have a very severe odor)
  • Vaginal bleeding between menstrual cycles
  • Pain during sexual intercourse
  • Severe itching in the area of the penis or vagina.

Signs and symptoms of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)

Common STDs have a variety of symptoms and many different complications, including death.

Symptoms of transmissible sexually transmitted diseases caused by bacteria

Symptoms of veneral
This condition is not common in the United States, but it is common in developing countries.
Symptoms include painful ulcers on the genitals.
The disease can be confused with syphilis or herpes.
It can be treated with antibiotics.

Symptoms of chlamydia
Chlamydia infection is the most common of all transmissible sexually transmitted diseases and is caused by bacteria.
In 80% of cases, the disease causes no symptoms in women, in men it is 50%.
If symptoms occur, it is discharge from the vagina or penis as well as burning or pain when urinating.
The disease is transmitted through vaginal, oral or sexual contact.
Extrauterine pregnancy and infertility are possible serious complications in women.
The infection is treatable with antibiotics.

Symptoms of gonorrhea
Over 50% of infected women have no symptoms but can transmit the disease to others.

  • Discharge from vagina or penis
  • Painful urination.
  • Ectopic pregnancy, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), female infertility, Fitzhugh-Curtis syndrome (perihepatitis), and death are possible serious complications.

The infection is treatable with antibiotics, but many strains become resistant to most drugs.

Symptoms of inguinal granuloma (donovanosis)
symptoms in the United States are non-painful genital ulcers in the groin.
Treatable with antibiotics, usually for three weeks or more

Lymphogranuloma venereum
In the United States,
symptoms rarely include abscesses in the groin, rectum, or other areas. Fistulas can form, excrete pus and are treatable with antibiotics.

Symptoms are mild and may go unnoticed at first.
The first sign is a painless genital ulcer, which spontaneously passes again.
Symptoms include: rashes, fever, headache and painful joints.
Treatable with antibiotics.
The most severe complications are associated with the following stages of the disease if the infection is not treated.

Symptoms of viral sexually transmitted diseases

Recurrent, wound-like blistering appears on the genitals.
Can be transmitted from a mother to her child during childbirth.
Therapy can reduce the frequency and severity of wart formation, but not completely eliminate the infection.
Can be transmitted from a partner who has herpes, even if there are no blisters.

Caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV),
painless small bumps form in the genital or area (sometimes large formations resembling cauliflower).
There are various treatments (for example, freezing or brushing the warts with a drug).
Vaccinations are available against the most common types of HPV.

Hepatitis B and D are often associated with sexual contact, hepatitis A, C and E are less likely to be transmitted during sexual contact.
Both are transmissible through the blood; In hepatitis B, it is believed that sexual transmission is responsible for 30% of cases in the world.
The virus of hepatitis B can lead to an acute and a chronic form of liver inflammation.
Only 50% of acute hepatitis B virus infections cause symptoms.
The initial phase of infection lasts a few weeks and in most people (90-95%) the infection heals completely.
In the acute phase, the infection can lead to a yellowish discoloration of the skin and eyes, fever, pain and fatigue (flu-like symptoms).
Serious complications, including cirrhosis and liver cancer, can occur in small percentages in some of those infected with HBV.
There are therapies for the infection and remission is possible with the use of some strong drugs.
There are vaccinations to prevent hepatitis B.

Transmission occurs mainly through sexual contact and the sharing of syringes.
Transmission can occur at the same moment that a person becomes infected with other STDs.
There are no specific symptoms or signs that confirm HIV infection.
The average time to develop symptoms associated with immunosuppression (decreased function of the immune system) is 10 years.
Tiredness, night sweats, chills or fever last for a few weeks, cough and headache may occur a few weeks after contact with the virus.
Serious complications of AIDS include unusual infections or tumors, weight loss, mental decline (dementia), and death.
There is no cure, but there are medications available to slow down the progression of the disease.

Molluscum contagiosum
This is a disease that leads to the formation of small papules (2-5 mm) on the skin.
It is highly contagious, usually through skin-to-skin contact.
The disease can last for months or years and is treated with certain creams.
Often, cryotherapy (cold treatment) or surgical removal is performed.

Symptoms of transmissible sexually transmitted diseases caused by a protozoan (unicellular organism).

Symptoms: foamy vaginal discharge with a very foul odor.
The therapy consists of antibacterial and anti-protozoal drugs.

Symptoms caused by sexually transmitted diseases caused by fungi

Candidiasis is a yeast infection and not always an STD.
Symptoms include: cheesy vaginal discharge or whitish exudate, sometimes associated with a reddish patch on the skin, may occur in infected men near the foreskin.
The most common symptoms are a feeling of itching and burning in the vagina or penis.
Treatment in most cases consists of local antifungal drugs.

Symptoms of sexually transmitted parasitic diseases

Pubic lice
Pubic lice are very small insects found in pubic hair that look like “crabs”.
They can be transmitted via clothing or bed linen.
First, itching in the pubic area is felt.
The infestation can be treated with creams and anti-lice agents or by reading.

This is a highly contagious skin infection caused by tiny mites.
The main symptom is severe itching, which worsens at night.
Scabies is mainly transmitted through sexual or skin contact, contaminated bedding, towels or furniture.
The infestation is treated with creams.

Diagnosis of transmissible sexually transmitted diseases

Some transmissible STDs can be diagnosed without a test (for example, pubic lice).
Other STDs require a blood test or a sample of unusual fluids (for example, vaginal or penile discharge in gonorrhea or chlamydia).
The sample must be analyzed in a laboratory to arrive at diagnosis.
Some tests are quick and the affected person may wait for the result in the hospital, while other tests may take a few days before the affected person can get the results (for example, syphilis).

Treatment of transmissible sexually transmitted diseases

Treatment of an STD varies depending on its type.
Some transmissible STDs are treated with an antibiotic that is either ingested or injected, others with creams or special solutions for the skin. Often, re-examination after treatment by the doctor is necessary to ensure that the disease is completely cured.

Some diseases, such as genital herpes and HIV (which leads to AIDS), cannot be cured, but can only be controlled by medication.

Prognosis of transmissible sexually transmitted diseases

Most transmissible STDs can be treated with medication or creams.
Usually, the recovery time is 1-2 weeks, but many diseases can recur in the following months.
In addition to the symptoms of infection, some STDs can cause other serious and protracted problems, including infertility and discomfort in newborns infected by the mother during pregnancy, such as blindness, bone deformity, mental retardation, and even death.

HIV can only be slowed down, not eliminated, and can lead to death.

Read more:

  • Chlamydia: symptoms, infection and therapy
  • Warts or genital condylomata acuminata
  • Gonorrhea: symptoms, infection and therapy