The Body Mass Index ( BMI ) is used to establish the parameters of obesity, in which, through height and weight, a number is generated that determines whether the patient is at the ideal weight for his height.
Obesity is considered when the BMI result is equal to or greater than 30 kg / m2.
There are three degrees for obesity, they are: grade I obesity, grade II obesity (severe), obesity III (morbid).
It can also be characterized by the location where the fat accumulates in the body, which can be homogeneous, abdominal or peripheral.
Obesity is a problem that concerns not only adults, but also children who are increasingly overweight and need changes in habits to reverse this situation.
Treatment can vary based on the degree of the condition the patient is in. But it is common to recommend the practice of physical exercises for fat loss, balanced diet, use of medications and in some cases the performance of bariatric surgery.
When obesity is not treated it can lead to complications and promote the development of other diseases, such as diabetes , high cholesterol, heart problems, respiratory diseases, such as sleep apnea , and even cancer .
There are treatments and ways of prevention, but because it is a multifactorial type of disease, it involves changing at several points and not only decreasing food intake.
Changing the lifestyle, adopting physical exercises, reducing stress and leading a healthier life is the focus of monitoring obesity.
In the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10), obesity can be found by the code:
- E66.0 – Obesity due to excess calories.
What is BMI?
The body mass index popularly known as BMI, consists of a method that calculates whether the person is at the ideal weight or not.
This is a simple way to detect excess weight, but it is necessary to carry out tests with a specialist to obtain more information on how the fat is distributed throughout the body and how the general health of the patient is.
In this BMI calculation, the individual’s height (calculated in meters) and weight (in kilograms) are taken into account, so the weight is divided by the person’s height squared.
For example, if a person is 1.70m tall and weighs 56kG the bill looks like this:
In this case, the individual’s BMI is 19.37.
After obtaining this number, it is necessary to look in the table to know in what degree it is:
- BMI less than 16 : it is classified as thin , heart failure, severe anemia, weakening of the immune system may occur;
- BMI from 16 to 17 : it is classified as moderate thinness , infertility, hair loss, lack of menstruation can occur;
- BMI from 17 to 18.5 : it is classified as light thinness , stress, anxiety, fatigue can occur;
- BMI between 18.5 to 25 : it is classified as healthy , it has a lower risk for diseases;
- BMI 25 to 30 : classified as overweight , fatigue, varicose veins, poor circulation can occur;
- BMI from 30 to 35 : it is classified as obesity grade I , diabetes, infarction, angina, atherosclerosis may occur;
- BMI from 35 to 40 : it is classified as obesity grade II (severe), sleep apnea, shortness of breath can occur;
- BMI greater than 40 : it is classified as obesity grade III (morbid), reflux, infarction, stroke, limited mobility, even death can occur.
The World Health Organization (WHO) uses BMI as an international standard calculation for reference and indicative of people’s health status. This method is old, dating from the end of the 19th century, created by the Belgian Lambert Quételet.
Obese or people with obesity?
Despite being often used, the terms obese and obese can generate an inappropriate meaning when referring to patients.
When the condition of obesity – or any other disease – is put as an adjective, it can (that is, say that someone is sick instead of having some disease), it can reinforce the notion of stigmatization of the condition.
To avoid this definition of the patient as his illness or condition, it is always preferable to use the terminology as part of the person, but not only that.
Thus, when the term “person with obesity” is used, the reduction of the patient to its weight or metabolic alteration is avoided. This acts as a production of meaning in respect and appreciation of the person and not of the disease.
Types of obesity
Obesity has types, which are characterized by the place where the accumulation of fat occurs:
In this type of obesity, fat is distributed throughout the body, so that it remains in an equal proportion.
The fat is distributed predominantly in the abdomen (belly) and waist area, popularly known as “pouch”.
Peripheral obesity is characterized when the fat is in regions such as the thighs, hips and buttocks. It is a common type of occurrence, especially with females.
Degrees of obesity
Obesity has three different degrees that have their characteristics and care, they are:
Grade I obesity
When the patient’s BMI is calculated and it fits as obesity grade I, the treatment consists of establishing a healthy diet combined with the practice of physical exercises, so that controlled weight loss with medical supervision occurs.
Depending on each person, the doctor may recommend bariatric surgery (weight reduction by surgery). This if there is an incidence of other serious diseases, and if the diet with the exercises do not generate results.
Normally, grade I obesity can cause diseases such as cardiovascular diseases ( heart attack , stroke), hypertension, diabetes and, in rare cases, even cancer.
Therefore, the faster the start of treatment with diet and exercise, it is possible to reduce the risks in the incidence of these other diseases along with obesity.
Grade II or severe obesity
If the BMI was performed and the result was grade II obesity, care is the same as grade I, the difference is that it requires more attention because the risks are more likely to develop other diseases.
A diet combined with physical exercise is recommended, depending on the patient, psychological treatment may also be indicated, when the condition starts to influence the individual’s well-being and self – esteem .
If, even following the recommendations, it is not possible to be successful in treatment, bariatric surgery may be considered. But, as it is a severe degree, surgery can cause some risks to the patient, such as thrombosis , bleeding and vascular problems.
So it depends on how the case is and on the medical evaluation to determine whether or not to perform such a surgery.
Obesity III or morbid
When the patient is diagnosed with grade III obesity, called morbid obesity, the case is serious because it can affect the patient’s life expectancy.
Generally, when the diagnosis of this type of case occurs, there are also other diseases together, the most common being dermatitis, osteoporosis , hypertension, hormonal disorders, heart problems, blood disorders such as anemia , which can even lead to sudden death.
In this case, medical monitoring is recommended, which will take care of the diet and exercise prescription and also psychological therapy, due to the cases of obesity that may cause the development of depression , anxiety , among others.
Stomach reduction surgery is advisable, so that there is weight control and stability in the patient’s health. After surgery and recovery, exercises are recommended to maintain health in balance.
Causes of obesity
The causes range from habits that impair food, lack of physical activity, life changes, emotional factors, among others:
Depending on each person, the metabolism works in a way, sometimes faster and sometimes slower.
However, the biochemical factor that integrates metabolism and obesity is caloric imbalance. That is, to maintain weight, the body needs to spend an adequate amount of calories to what it ingests.
If the intake is greater than the metabolic process needs, that energy accumulates in the form of fat.
Our education, culture, habits and relationships can influence the lifestyle we adopt.
Bad eating habits, physical inactivity, excessive consumption of industrialized products and stressful routines are some external factors that can interfere and lead to obesity.
Bad eating habits
Obesity develops from bad eating habits, such as not including fruits and vegetables in the diet, eating a lot of industrialized food, rich in sugars and fat.
It can also develop from the habit of not cooking at home and eating more than necessary outside. Drinking a lot of alcohol also influences, adding sauces and caloric condiments, in addition to eating disorders (for example, eating as a form of comfort in stressful situations).
Read more: Why should we eat fiber and what is the ideal daily amount
Sedentary lifestyle and little physical activity
Many people usually eat a lot and do not exercise, that is, they do not spend the energy consumed. When they realize, they are overweight due to the caloric accumulation that becomes fat.
People who do not practice any type of physical activity are classified as sedentary and need to be aware of their health. This group finds it easier to gain weight, in addition to suffering from the risks of inactivity.
Some diseases that interfere with hormones can influence the development of obesity, are rare cases to happen, but there are possibilities.
These are usually diseases such as hypothyroidism , polycystic ovary syndrome, growth hormone deficiency, among others.
Genes can influence the way in which body fat is stored and distributed throughout the body.
A protein called leptin may act as a warning when we are satisfied after eating, it also acts secondarily in the process of burning the ingested calories.
Leptin release is possibly related to genetic factors as well. Therefore, some people may take longer to feel satisfied (which makes them eat more).
There are also other hormones and enzymes that participate in the regulation of appetite and energy expenditure may be influenced by genetics.
Genetic inheritance is complex, much research is done to try to discover the effects of genes on people and whether there is a possibility of reversing them.
Children with obesity
Obesity can occur in children, usually the cases are influenced by genetics and eating habits, acquired in the environments in which that child lives.
It is common for children to enjoy sweets, snacks, juices and industrialized dairy drinks. Therefore, it is necessary to have a balance, not forbidding the child to eat these foods, but knowing how to regulate and offer healthy dishes, with fruits and vegetables is fundamental.
In addition, the example of parents or family members is essential. That is, it is important that the whole family has a balanced diet.
Obesity cases in children can cause the emergence of other diseases in the future, such as: hypertension (high blood pressure in the arteries), high cholesterol, type 2 diabetes, among others.
In addition, it can also bring problems that need psychological help, generating anxiety, depression and low self-esteem.
Obesity can be facilitated in adolescence by multiple factors, such as the development of the body (hormonal changes) and poor eating habits.
If weight gain is not taken care of during adolescence, the possibility of becoming an overweight adult is great, which ends up influencing the development of other diseases.
It is recommended to follow a balanced diet, rich in vegetables, fruits and vegetables, always accompanying a nutritionist, who can assist in changing the menu, in addition to endocrinologists and psychologists.
Establishing healthy habits at this stage, adjusting eating behavior and a good relationship with food makes future healthy habits (in adulthood) easier to follow and maintain.
Obesity in Brazil
In 2018, the Ministry of Health released a survey entitled Surveillance of Risk Factors and Protection from Chronic Diseases, which brought data on the level of obesity in the country.
This research showed that 18.9% of Brazilians are obese and that 54% of the population is already overweight, which mainly affects the youngest, between 25 and 34 years old.
These increases shown by the research are also related to the emergence of other diseases that end up providing weight gain, such as high blood pressure , menopause , hypothyroidism, among others.
Data were also collected regarding the eating habits of Brazilians, who demonstrated that they were eating less of the basic foods ( beans , rice).
To give you an idea, in 2012 the consumption of beans was 67.5%, in 2018 that number decreased to 61.3%.
Regarding the consumption of fruits and vegetables, there was a positive balance of growth of 5% in the dishes of Brazilians.
But the female public is largely responsible for this result – 40% of women consume vegetables and fruits, while only 27.8% of men consume it.
Risk factors: what influences it?
Obesity can arise in anyone due to some external and internal factors, they are:
Internal factors occur in our body, affecting weight:
Having obesity does not mean having an unwillingness to lose weight, as one of the causes of this disease may be related to the genetic factor, in which the genes passed on by the father or mother influence the form of gain and also weight loss.
Therefore, some people are able to put on weight without having to eat a lot, while others eat and cannot put on weight.
When there is obesity in the family, the risk of another person within the family circle developing obesity is 20 to 30%. They can impact the ways in which fat is deposited, satiety and energy expenditure.
When some people are anxious, stressed or sad, they can discount their emotions in food by overeating. Not only because of hunger, but also because of the feeling of feeling good when eating a certain food.
Generally when this happens, you need the help of a professional as a psychologist to assist in the management of these feelings so that it does not harm the person’s weight and well-being.
Not getting enough sleep
According to research published by the journal Science Translational Medicine, sleeping has little effect on health and may favor obesity.
This is due to the biological clock that is altered, with a decrease in metabolism which can cause weight gain, in addition to changing the notions of hunger and satiety – causing the calorie intake to be higher.
Diet low in nutrients
There is an increasing presence of ready and industrialized food options, but along with practicality comes poor quality. These foods have a lot of fat, preservatives, salt and sugar, which can harm your health.
Because it is a cheap and fast option, industrialized foods are now more consumed, but unfortunately these foods are low in nutrients for our body and can have negative impacts on it, such as obesity.
Use of certain medications
During the use of some medications, fluid retention can occur, causing weight gain.
Some of the drugs that can cause this weight gain are: corticosteroids , tibolone , some antidepressants called tricycles (such as imipramine ), among others.
Read more: Corticoid: fattening or swelling?
From the age of 30, metabolism slows down. This decrease causes the burning of calories to be slower, which can influence weight gain, especially if the diet is not regulated.
Pregnancy is a natural factor for weight gain. After childbirth it is possible to return to weight before pregnancy, but it is a process that occurs little by little.
However, dietary changes during the gestation period can influence weight gain and hinder the weight loss process.
The environments we frequent, family customs and even our lifestyle are external factors that can influence weight gain:
High cost of fresh and healthy food
There is a difference in price between fresh and healthy food in relation to processed foods, which is mainly due to the tax burden imposed on these foods, which end up favoring processed foods.
Therefore, many people are unable to balance their diet because of prices.
Read more: Know the dangers of excess sodium in the diet
Having a sedentary lifestyle is not good for your health in general, favoring the appearance or development of other diseases (such as diabetes or hypertension), in addition to hampering energy balance.
Obesity is also related to the local culture. Some countries or cities have eating habits or life routines that favor weight gain.
This aspect is present in several communities and is also favored by development. For example, working hard, using more cars, being in more urbanized regions (making walking less necessary).
All of these external aspects are part of the culture and end up also impacting the way we spend energy.
Symptoms and impacts
Among the symptoms of obesity, some appear, such as:
Changes in appetite
In people with obesity, hunger-related hormones react differently compared to people with healthy weight.
The levels of the hormones responsible for the feeling of satiety are released with less intensity in overweight people, making them need to eat more to feel satisfied.
Due to weight gain, some people may experience mobility difficulties. From the act of walking, to putting on clothes, bending down, walking etc.
Feeling tired frequently
When weight increases, tiredness ends up appearing with some frequency, even in activities that do not require much effort, such as after cleaning the house, walking for 5 minutes, among others.
The weight of the body, the limitations that are imposed on the body and the lack of physical conditioning can favor the feeling of fatigue .
Weight gain causes fat to gradually accumulate in the neck, which reduces the diameter of the pharynx and chest.
This makes it necessary to make a greater effort to breathe, generating sleep apnea (a disorder in which breathing stops and returns during sleep).
As with sleep apnea, obesity causes breathing difficulties. The structures of the pharynx, in this case, need to extend, and this causes the muscles to vibrate and produce snoring.
Shortness of breathe
Soon after starting an activity, be it an exercise or even something routine, like washing clothes, tiredness and shortness of breath can occur.
This is due to weight gain, which interferes with the capacity of the respiratory muscle, decreasing it and making breathing more difficult.
In addition, in cases of severe obesity, the signals sent to the brain tend to change, causing changes without mechanical cause to breathing.
Pain in the body and joints
Weight gain can cause stress in the body’s joints, as you are not used to the amount of weight. What can cause, during the day or at night, pains in the body.
In addition, excess fat is associated with increased levels of inflammation in the body. That is, there is release of inflammatory substances that can cause or increase pain.
Diagnosis: Which professional should I look for?
All health professionals can diagnose obesity and, as it is a condition that affects the whole body, it must be monitored by specialists from different areas.
But, in general, a general practitioner, endocrinologist or nutritionist are the main physicians related to follow-up.
The endocrinologist takes care of the functioning of the body’s glands and some associated tissues, such as the intestine, stomach and fat.
The nutritionist, in addition to also participating in the diagnosis, can assist in the choice of food to change the patient’s condition.
The diagnosis can be made based on the calculation of BMI, assessing eating habits and identifying other diseases resulting from weight (comorbidities).
In some cases, other tests may be ordered by the specialist, such as blood collection for cholesterol, glycemia, triglycerides, in addition to cardiac tests and others.
These tests are essential to determine how the patient’s general health is and what are the most important dietary changes for treatment.
Treatment in case of obesity requires changes in lifestyle to achieve health, reducing weight appropriately, through physical activities, nutrient-rich food, reduction of harmful habits (such as alcohol or cigarettes).
In some cases, the possibility of using medications and even surgery is assessed.
Practice of physical activities
During treatment it is necessary to practice physical activity so that the body starts to become active and the fat starts to be burned.
Choose the exercise that suits you best and talk to your doctor about the choice. Including physical activities in everyday life will also help to increase your strength, endurance and improve the functioning of your metabolism.
In conjunction with medical care, food is very important, so one option is to consult a nutritionist. He will be the specialist who will help to change your daily menu, including fruits and vegetables according to your preference.
The nutritionist will also indicate the foods according to the calories needed for your body type, in addition to vitamins and minerals.
Read more: Healthy Eating: what it is, benefits, how to have it, menu, tips
There are bariatric surgeries that reduce the patient’s stomach size. In this modality, there are three variations for this surgery:
- Adjustable vertical band (a part of the stomach is attached with an adjustable silicone ring);
- Vertical gastroplasty (part of the stomach is removed);
- Vertical gastroplasty with Roux-en-Y bypass (one of the most used techniques, is done by means of staples that reduce the size of the stomach).
In addition, there is a 2nd type of surgery in which there is not so much limitation of the stomach. Called disabsorptive or scopinaro bariatric surgery, the stomach is kept about ⅔ of its size.
There are people who need to undergo some type of behavioral therapy due to stress, anxiety and low self-esteem resulting from or associated with obesity.
Therapy can also assist in making choices for a healthy life, working on confidence and changing habits such as chewing slowly, avoiding junk food outside the home, etc.
The use of medications in cases of obesity must be medically monitored, along with exercise and a balanced diet to be effective and have an effect.
The medicine used alone will not have the power to lose weight, there needs to be a plan made with medical guidance to generate satisfactory results.
Some of the most common drugs to be used are separated by the mechanism of action:
This type of medication manages to decrease the patient’s hunger, but can cause side effects such as insomnia , constipation , tachycardia, among others.
People who have high blood pressure, heart disease or who have suffered a stroke should not use this type of drug. Among the options are:
Sibutramine hydrochloride is able to promote a feeling of satiety to the body, making the subject not to feel hungry after eating a small portion of food.
Its action can lead to the loss of about 5% to 8% of the weight.
Side effects include the possibility of a heart attack or stroke.
Due to these facts, the pharmaceutical industry in Europe and the USA withdrew the substance from its market, in Brazil studies are still underway so that decisions can be made about it.
- Sibutramine Hydrochloride ( Biomag , Grece , Sigran ).
Alter the absorption of food
Orlistat is a medication that reduces digestion by connecting to a pancreas enzyme (lipase), acting to decrease its action and, consequently, to digest and absorb fats.
This drug can cause side effects, such as fecal incontinence and reduced vitamin absorption, so its use should be supervised by the doctor.
- Orlistate ( Lipiblock , Lipoxen , Lystate ).
NEVER self-medicate or stop using a medication without first consulting a doctor. Only he will be able to tell which medication, dosage and duration of treatment is the most suitable for his specific case. The information contained on this site is only intended to inform, not in any way intended to replace the guidance of a specialist or serve as a recommendation for any type of treatment. Always follow the instructions on the package insert and, if symptoms persist, seek medical or pharmaceutical advice.
Some people are predisposed to obesity and, even following treatments, it is not always easy to stay focused on weight loss, in addition to the process taking place slowly depending on each organism.
Some measures can be taken to facilitate treatment:
Surround yourself with good people
The family and friendship circle is very important for our life, especially when we need support.
That’s why I prefer to be with people who accept you as you are, support your choices and help when necessary. Review who puts you down, harms your self-esteem and does not help in your evolution.
Not so much is covered
Some people take measures to change their lives, adhere to diets, exercise and follow this schedule on the line, but they are not successful. This is not a reason for charging or feeling guilty, our body takes a long time to recognize weight loss as beneficial.
Establishing simpler goals, such as reducing 10% of weight, is enough to achieve countless benefits, in addition to being an easier way, avoiding frustrations that can worsen or hinder weight loss.
Work on self-esteem
It is difficult not to compare yourself to other people during the treatment and weight loss process, but understand that each individual has a different body and that is not why it is bad or ugly.
Start observing your qualities, what you like about your body, what you want to improve and work on how you can feel good about yourself whether in clothes, appearance or attitudes.
Read more: 13 tips on how to improve self-esteem
Escape the fad diets
Do you know those diets that promise to lose 5kG in a week? Run away from them, these fad and trendy diets, instead of really helping with weight loss, can do the opposite effect and influence weight gain.
In addition to not being good for your health, you can develop problems in the body, which can impair the activity of the liver and kidney.
Obesity may be a cause for concern, but it is possible to reverse the situation and achieve stability in these cases. The vast majority of patients with obesity return to their previous weight, so commitment to treatment is necessary to generate results.
Follow-up is always continuous, causing changes in behavior and diet to be carried out throughout life.
In general, losing between 5% and 10% of weight already represents a significant improvement in quality of life.
Mortality from obesity
A survey by the New England Journal of Medicine revealed that 4 million people died in 2015, with obesity as one of the associated factors, most of the victims had a BMI greater than 35.
This number is worrying, as it is considered the second leading cause of death in the world, greater than those due to Alzheimer’s and car accidents, in which they also have an expressive number in comparison.
Among these 4 million, the predominance was of women in the 50 to 64 age group, while the average of men was 35 to 50 years. But these numbers can be changed when seeking treatment and treating the cause.
Cardiovascular diseases, cancers and type 2 diabetes are some of the conditions that compromise the patient’s health and that, when obesity is present, seriously increases the risks of death.
Consequences: which diseases are caused by obesity?
Obesity when left untreated can lead to complications in the patient’s life, generating long-term consequences. Regardless of the type of obesity, you need to be aware that this condition increases the risk of other diseases, such as:
Type 2 diabetes
When we are obese, our body increases the need for insulin, so we start to consume more sugars and refined foods, which gradually generates an accumulation of fat.
This accumulation intensifies insulin resistance, which promotes the development of type 2 diabetes.
When we gain weight we don’t just increase the number on the scale, in our body there is an increase in insulin (responsible for metabolizing blood sugar).
This ends up facilitating the kidneys to absorb the sodium, which generates an increase in the volume of the blood that is circulating, thus causing high blood pressure.
Metabolic syndrome is a condition in which the patient has a greater chance of developing cardiovascular diseases and diabetes, this is due to the factors that work together and favor the onset of these diseases.
Among the factors are: overweight, genetic inheritance and lack of physical activity.
What characterizes the metabolic syndrome is that whoever has it has resistance to insulin (a hormone that regulates glucose).
That is, the pancreas needs to produce more insulin to be able to use it in the tissues. But glycemia is elevated and, therefore, health is impaired.
When we are obese, changes occur in the body, one of which is the structure of the heart that increases in size when it tries too hard to function.
By increasing in size, this organ produces more effort to pump blood, which in the long run can lead to the development of heart failure.
With obesity, there is a higher proportion of fat that can affect the activity of arteries (vessels that carry blood to the heart).
Excess fat can clog the arteries, causing a stroke, as blood cannot reach the brain by interrupting the arteries.
Obesity can favor the development of cancer, this is because the accumulated fat in the body stimulates cells to multiply so that tumors can be formed, due to the joint action of hormones.
Excess weight causes fat to accumulate in different parts of the body, such as the neck, causing the airway to decrease in size.
In this case, they need to make a greater effort to allow the correct passage of air. As the effort becomes greater, it can cause disturbances related to breathing, with snoring and sleep apnea being the most common.
The gallbladder is responsible for storing bile (a type of liquid that acts on the digestion of food), which is produced in the liver.
The more fatty foods are consumed the more the gallbladder needs to work, which ends up providing the formation of stones (similar to stones), which cause inflammation and a lot of pain.
Obese women are prone to gynecological problems, such as ovulatory problems that result in a poor fertility rate.
When the woman is finally able to get pregnant, she needs to be careful with the fetus because obesity provides a greater risk of malformation and prematurity.
Sexual health problems
One of the problems of obesity is in relation to sexual health, as there is an imbalance of hormones in both men and women, decreasing libido and erection in men.
In women, the blood circulation undergoes changes that affect the flow in Organs genitals, making it difficult to arousal during sexual intercourse.
Osteoarthritis is characterized by wear and tear on the body’s joints, it occurs due to an overload of weight, in which the joints need to exert more force to move the body. It is common for osteoarthritis to appear on the hip and knee.
A study by the International Journal of Epidemiology showed that obesity does not only influence cardiovascular disease, but also emotional diseases such as depression.
The same genes responsible for weight gain are associated with diseases such as diabetes (also with obese people) and the development of depression.
Shame and guilt
Many people with obesity worry about their appearance and, when they eat something, they feel guilty and ashamed of their bodies. This also affects self-esteem and personal relationships. Much of this ends up being harmful during treatment.
Common to occur in childhood, children who have obesity can be reasons for games and nicknames among colleagues, the reaction to this is that the child isolates himself and is always alone.
This behavior can also occur in adolescence and adulthood, due to the feeling of shame in the body itself.
Low performance at work
A survey by the consultancy Maplecroft showed that Brazil is the 7th country in which obesity most influences low performance in the labor market.
According to the research, this is due to the need for employees to attend more doctors and have difficulty performing tasks that require physical effort.
How to prevent
There are ways to prevent obesity and achieve a good quality of life, some tips for this are:
Exercising will not only help prevent obesity, but also provide health improvements, such as stimulating the immune system to become stronger, increasing mood, controlling hypertension, regulating sleep quality, reducing bad cholesterol, among others.
It is recommended to exercise at least 2 days a week. The preferred activities are aerobics that consist of a good caloric expenditure such as running, gymnastics, swimming, among others.
Add fruits and vegetables to your diet according to your preference.
Take a chance and add grains such as chia and flaxseed, to enhance the fiber dishes. Assemble smaller portions of food, but be careful not to go hungry, set a good limit for your plate.
Avoid sodas and opt for natural juices, eat 3 good meals a day so that the body feels full and does not run the risk of “pinching” other foods throughout the day.
This does not mean that sweets and fatty foods are prohibited, you can consume as long as there is moderation and awareness. Try cooking more, as this can reduce your intake of processed foods.
Monitor your weight and behavior
Always try to maintain a healthy weight at your height and body type.
Be aware of your behavior, if sometimes you are not overeating due to an emotional issue, for example.
Evaluate what can be substituted in the diet for a less caloric option, notice if you are not having the “eye bigger than the belly”, everything can be controlled from the attention in the food choices.
When is obesity?
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), obesity is characterized by the accumulation of fat in the body. The diagnosis of the disease is made by means of the body mass index (BMI), through the height and weight a number is obtained, if the result is above 30 the individual is considered obese.
What are the degrees of obesity?
Obesity can be classified into three degrees, depending on the BMI result: from 30 to 34 is obesity I, from 35 to 39 is obesity II (severe) and above 40 is obesity III (morbid).
What is the risk of obesity?
Obesity, depending on the degree, presents different risks, but there are some points in common that the disease can provide. It can cause the development of diabetes, high blood pressure, coronary artery disease, stroke, kidney disease, blindness and even lead the patient to death.
When is the use of medicines necessary?
The use of medicines is necessary in cases when weight loss is unsuccessful by non-pharmacological means. such as dietary reeducation and physical activity.
However, it is always necessary to have a medical evaluation, taking into account factors associated with obesity and difficulty in reducing weight.
When is obesity surgery indicated?
Bariatric surgery is indicated in cases where patients are diagnosed with grade 2 (severe) obesity, when the patient has a BMI above 35 kg / m² with some associated disease (such as diabetes), or even when the BMI is higher 40 kg / m² and the prescribed treatment is not effective.
However, the possibility of surgery should always be evaluated by a professional, taking into account the patient’s condition and always seeking well-being.
What can lead to obesity?
Obesity can arise due to some factors, such as poor choices in food when choosing fast-foods, industrialized foods and low in nutrients, due to the lack of physical exercise, high calorie consumption and genetics.
Excess weight gain can also occur due to the influence of other diseases, such as diabetes, hypothyroidism, menopause, among others. Obesity can be caused by emotional factors, such as depression and anxiety, in which the act of eating produces a feeling of well-being for the individual.
In other words, it is a multifactorial condition, favored by factors of the organism, behavior and the external environment.