What is Hypertension, Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

On April 26, Brazil mobilizes to make people aware of the risks and the importance of fighting high blood pressure.

The date is remembered by professionals in the area with great concern, as about 1/4 of the Brazilian population suffers from this disease.

Better understand what the disease is in the matter below.


What is high blood pressure ?

Arterial hypertension, also popularly known as high blood pressure, is considered to be a silent disease because it often does not manifest symptoms and thus delays the diagnosis on the part of the doctor. The disease occurs when the patient’s blood pressure, over 18 years old, is greater than 140 x 90 mmHg (millimeter per mercury) – or 14 by 9.

According to the Brazilian Society of Hypertension (SBS), it is estimated that 25% of the Brazilian population suffers from hypertension, and in people over 60 years of age the percentage rises to more than 50%.

In addition, the disease is also the cause of:

  • 40% of heart attacks;
  • 80% of strokes;
  • 25% of kidney failure cases across the country.


Hypertension has a classification that varies according to its severity:

  • Normotensive:  Pressures less than or equal to 12 by 8;
  • Pre-hypertensive:  Pressures between 12 by 8 – 13 by 9;
  • Grade I hypertensive: Pressures between 14 by 9 – 15 by 9;
  • Grade II hypertensive:  Pressures greater than or equal to 16 by 10.

Be aware of your pressure so that you can seek medical help as soon as possible if there is evidence of hypertension.

White coat hypertension

White coat hypertension is understood as the elevation of blood pressure in patients who experience anxiety in medical appointments, causing their pressure to rise at the same time.

As much as it is not actually a type of hypertension, it occurs in people who are predisposed to develop the disease.


Blood pressure rises for several reasons, but mainly because the vessels in which the blood passes are constricted. In addition, several factors can influence the development of hypertension, such as:

  • Family history of hypertension;
  • Obesity;
  • Diabetes;
  • Diet rich in sodium;
  • Smoking;
  • Excess fat in the blood;
  • Excessive alcoholic beverages;
  • Sedentary lifestyle;
  • Stress.

Hypertension symptoms

In addition to the check-up that must be done constantly, it is important to pay attention to the symptoms of hypertension:

  • Pain in the nape of the neck;
  • Blurry vision;
  • Tiredness;
  • Dizziness;
  • Bleeding from the nose;
  • Nausea and vomiting – these usually appear in more advanced cases.


If not treated at the right time and in the right way, hypertension can have several consequences:

  • Cardiac insufficiency;
  • Myocardial infarction;
  • Cardiac arrhythmias;
  • Sudden death;
  • Aneurysms;
  • Loss of vision;
  • Chronic renal failure;
  • Ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke;
  • Dementia due to micro cerebral infarctions;
  • Arteriosclerosis.


People who suffer from high blood pressure should go to the cardiologist once every six months; those with normal pressure, once a year. Children should also have their blood pressure monitored with their pediatricians.

As already mentioned, the symptoms of hypertension are often not detected, but there are laboratory tests that detect them early, such as the following:

  • Urinalysis;
  • Hematocrit;
  • Urea and / or Creatinine;
  • Potassium;
  • Fasting glucose;
  • Calcium;
  • TSH and T4;
  • Lipidogram.

Prevention and Treatment

If you are already hypertensive, or have a tendency to be, the items below serve both as prevention against the disease and as a treatment to stabilize blood pressure:

  • Reduce table salt and foods that contain a lot of salt;
  • Reduce alcohol consumption;
  • Quitting smoking, if you are a smoker;
  • Exercise regularly;
  • Control changes in blood fats.

Medicines used to treat hypertension

  • Aldactone
  • Apresolina
  • Aradois
  • Atenolol
  • Atenolol + Chlortalidone
  • Atensina
  • Anlodipine Besylate
  • Benicar
  • Chlortalidone
  • Co-Pressotec
  • Captopril
  • Captopril + Hydrochlorothiazide
  • Carvedilol
  • Concor
  • Diovan
  • Diurix
  • Doxazosin
  • Duomo
  • Enalapril + Hydrochlorothiazide
  • Enalapril
  • Spironolactone
  • Furosemide
  • Hydrochlorothiazide
  • Higroton
  • Indapen SR
  • Lasix
  • Lisinopril
  • Losartan Potassium
  • Losartan Potassium + Hydrochlorothiazide
  • Methyldopa
  • Nebilet


NEVER self-medicate or stop using a medication without first consulting a doctor. Only he will be able to tell which medication, dosage and duration of treatment is the most suitable for his specific case. The information contained on this site is only intended to inform, not in any way intended to replace the guidance of a specialist or serve as a recommendation for any type of treatment. Always follow the instructions on the package insert and, if symptoms persist, seek medical or pharmaceutical advice.

Remember: Prevention is important for any type of illness, but before taking any of these medications, consult your doctor first. He will be able to indicate the medication that best fits your clinical condition.