Typhoid fever and typhoid fever

Typhoid fever (also called typhoid abdominalis) is an acute disease caused by the bacterium Salmonella typhi.
It may also be caused by Salmonella paratyphi, a bacterium that usually causes a less serious disease: paratyphoid.


Causes of typhoid fever

Bacteria that cause typhoid fever (S. typhi) spread through contaminated food, beverages and water.
If you eat or drink something contaminated, the bacteria enter the body.
As a result, S. Typhi spreads in the intestine and thus in the bloodstream, reaches the lymph nodes, bile, liver, spleen and other parts of the body.

Some people can be carriers of S. typhi, release the bacteria with their stool for years and thus spread the disease.
Typhoid fever is common in underdeveloped countries, but about 400 cases are also reported each year from the United States.
Most cases in the United States are imported from other countries where typhoid fever is common.

Typhoid fever is highly contagious. An infected person can spread the bacteria out of the body through the stool and, less frequently, through the urine.

According to the naturopathy of Lezaeta and the hygienism of Shelton, the microbes do not cause infections and diseases.
An organism becomes ill when the person consumes foods that are digested slowly (meat, fish, eggs, dairy products, processed foods, boiled and fried foods, cakes, etc.) and thus intestinal rot occurs.
The bacteria feed on dead and decomposing tissue, in fact in nature they eat dead animals that are decomposed.
In a favorable environment, pathogenic microorganisms multiply and penetrate into the intestine, but if a person eats healthy, natural and with a suitable combination of foods, no disease occurs.
This also explains why not everyone in a family or class falls ill, but only some.

How to get typhoid fever? Infection

When an infected person has bowel movements, Salmonella typhi bacteria can be released. If the hands are not washed thoroughly after using the toilet, S. typhi can contaminate all food and what you touch.
The infection occurs orally-fecal, i.e. the microorganisms are excreted through the stool and they are absorbed through the mouth.

If infected food is consumed by another person, they can also become infected.
Less frequently, the bacterium Salmonella typhi can be spread through the urine.
If an infected person touches food with hands not thoroughly washed, he can infect anyone else who consumes the contaminated food.
In some countries with poor hygienic and sanitary conditions, infected human excretions can contaminate water sources.
People who drink contaminated water or consume food that has been washed with contaminated water can contract typhoid fever.

Other ways in which you can get typhoid fever are:

  • Use of a toilet contaminated with bacteria when touching your mouth before washing your hands.
  • Eating crustaceans or seafood derived from the water of a source contaminated with infected feces or urine.
  • Sexual intercourse (oral or anal) with a person who is a carrier of Salmonella typhi.

Carriers of typhoid fever

If typhoid fever is not treated, it is estimated that one person in 20 who survive the infection becomes a healthy carrier of the disease.
This means that the Salmonella typhi bacteria can continue to survive in the bladder or intestine and then spread in turn with the feces or urine. The carriers of typhoid fever themselves have no symptoms.

Incubation period for typhoid fever

The incubation period can last from 3 to 90 days, on average it is 1-3 weeks.

Symptoms of typhoid fever

Although children with typhoid fever suddenly become ill, the signs and symptoms are much more likely to develop gradually, often between one and three weeks after exposure to the disease.
The course is divided into seven weeks, because each week has its characteristic characteristics.

  1. Typhoid Week

Once the signs and symptoms appear, you are very likely to feel:

  • Fever that starts low and increases daily, often reaching 39.4 or 40 degrees.
  • Headache.
  • Weakness and fatigue.
  • Dry cough.
  • loss of appetite.
  • Stomach ache.
  • Diarrhea or constipation.
  • Rash consisting of small red spots on the trunk.
  1. Typhoid Week

If typhoid fever is not treated, the second phase may occur, during which one becomes seriously ill and the following symptoms appear:

  • Constant high fever.
  • Diarrhea or severe constipation.
  • Considerable weight loss.
  • Extremely bloated and swollen abdomen.
  1. Typhoid Week

The trend changes in the third week, you can:

  • Being immobile and exhausted, eyes are squinted, a typical symptom of typhoid.
  • Fatal complications often develop this week.
  1. Typhoid Week

Improvement may occur slowly over the course of the fourth week. The fever may gradually recede until the temperature is within the normal range after another week or ten days.
The signs and symptoms may return for up to two weeks after the fever subsides.
Unlike cholera, typhoid fever is less severe and mortality is much lower.

Possible complications and consequences of typhoid fever and typhoid fever

  • intestinal haemorrhages (severe intestinal bleeding),
  • intestinal perforation,
  • Renal failure
  • Peritonitis.

How is typhoid fever diagnosed?

If typhoid fever is suspected, the doctor will apply a stool culture (in the second week) according to the patient’s clinical symptoms and/or perform blood tests to specifically look for Salmonella typhi bacteria.

The doctor asks the patient about the medical history and his travels to determine possible contact with the bacteria.

Drug therapy for typhoid fever

Antibiotic therapy is the only effective treatment for typhoid fever.

Commonly prescribed antibiotics

  1. Ciprofloxacin (Ciproxin). In the United States, doctors often prescribe this drug for non-pregnant adults.
  2. Ceftriaxone (Rocefin). This antibiotic in the form of an injection is an alternative for pregnant women and children who are not allowed to take ciprofloxacin.

These drugs can cause side effects, their prolonged use can lead to the development of antibiotic-resistant strains.

Resistance problems with antibiotics
In the past, chloramphenicol (Iruxol) was the preferred agent. Today, doctors no longer often prescribe it due to the side effects: a high rate of deterioration of health after a period of improvement (relapse) and diffuse bacterial resistance.
In fact, bacterial resistance to antibiotics is a growing problem in the treatment of typhoid, especially in developing countries. In recent years, S. typhi has been resistant to trimetoprim/sulfametoxazole (trade name Bactrim forte) and ampicillin (AMPIPLUS,® AMPLITAL).®

Natural remedies for typhoid fever and typhoid fever

Other treatment elements against the symptoms are:

  • Drink plenty of fluids. This helps prevent dehydration, which is a result of long-lasting fever and diarrhea. In severe dehydration, it may be necessary to administer fluid intravenously (through the vein of one arm).
  • A healthy and light diet.

According to naturopathy and if the patient has no contraindications (pregnancy, diabetes or advanced cancer, advanced tuberculosis and heart disease), one can fast to favor the excretion of toxins.
If the patient feels better, a light and natural diet should be done with fruits and raw vegetables, legumes and dried fruits.
Animal proteins, cakes, salt and processed products found in supermarkets should be avoided.

Prognosis of typhoid fever and typhoid fever

There is a good chance that a patient who uses antibiotic therapy can be discharged from the hospital when the disease is stabilized.
Good general hygiene should be maintained (as always) in the household, because the bacteria can continue to be excreted with the stool for a few months.
If the patient works with food, he should stay at home until no infection can be detected in at least two stool samples.

About 1 person in 20 who have been treated for typhoid fever has a relapse.
Symptoms return about a week after completion of antibiotic treatment.

Long-term eliminators
After the symptoms have passed, other examinations of the stool should
be carried out to determine whether there are still bacteria of Salmonella typhi in the stool. If these are present, it means that the patient is still a carrier of typhoid fever.

Typhoid vaccination

There are two vaccinations to prevent typhoid.

One is vaccination with inactive (killed) bacteria administered by injection and the other is vaccination with attenuated live bacteria taken orally (by mouth).

Vaccination against typhoid fever is recommended:

  1. Travelers staying in areas of the world where typhoid fever is common (Note: Typhoid vaccination is effective in 50-75% of cases and only for about 3 years. It is not a drug that makes your own caution, i.e. that you pay attention to what you consume and drink, superfluous).
  2. Persons in close contact with typhoid carriers.
  3. Laboratory staff working with bacteria of Salmonella typhi.

Inactive typhoid vaccine ViCPS (injection)
Should not be given to children under two years of age.
One dose is sufficient for vaccination protection. Administration should be given at least two weeks before travel to give the vaccine time to develop complete protection.
Every two years, people in high-risk areas need to be revaccinated.
Side effects include headache, general malaise and fever.

Live typhoid vaccine attenuated (oral)
Must not be given to children under six years of age.
Four doses (1 dose every 2 days) are required for vaccination protection.
The last dose must be given 1 week before travel to allow the vaccine to take effect.
A booster dose is required every five years for people who are in high-risk areas.
The vaccination can be done together with other vaccinations.

Side effects of oral vaccination

  • Gastrointestinal disorders such as abdominal pain, vomiting and diarrhea
  • Urticaria and rash

Prevention of typhoid fever

When traveling to high-risk areas, you should follow the following guidelines:

  1. Wash hands. Washing hands frequently is the best way to keep the infection under control. Wash hands thoroughly with warm water and soap, especially before eating, before preparing it and after using the toilet. Carry an alcohol-containing disinfectant with you and use it if water is not available.
  2. Do not drink untreated water. Contaminated drinking water is a problem especially in endemic typhoid areas (cause of the epidemic). For this reason, one should only drink water or carbonated drinks from bottles or cans. Wine and beer can be drunk. Carbonated mineral water is safer than still water. Before drinking, clean the bottle or can on the outside. Order drinks without ice cubes. Use bottled water to brush your teeth.
  3. Avoid unpeeled fruits and vegetables, especially lettuce.
  4. Choose cooked food. Avoid food served at room temperature. Hot, steaming foods are best. It is better to avoid food from street vendors.

Paratyphoid fever

Paratyphoid fever is a disease similar to acute typhoid fever and is caused by the bacterium Salmonella paratyphi.
The symptoms of paratyphoid are similar to those of intestinal inflammation: fever, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain and arterial hypotension.
The prognosis for paratyphoid is 10-14 days and is similar to typhoid but less severe and shorter.
Complications of paratyphoid are rare.
Diagnosis is made by stool examination.
As a rule, there is no therapy, but in very severe cases, the doctor may prescribe antibiotics: ampicillin, amoxicillin, quinolones and cephalosporins.

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