High fever in children can be caused by many different diseases. These are often viral or bacterial infections.
Some children can also get a fever due to tooth growth.
Causes of fever in children
Viral infections such as colds and flu are diseases that usually cause only a slight fever in children.
Other causes include:
- Infections of the ears (otitis media)
- Urinary tract infection
- Three-day fever (roseola)
- Hand-foot oral disease
- Scarlet fever
- Dengue fever (transmitted by the bite of the Asian tiger mosquito)
Sometimes other symptoms occur along with the fever, for example:
- Sore throat
- Nasal congestion
- Swollen eyes
- Cold hands and feet
Bloody sputum can be the symptom of a serious illness such as:
These diseases are very rare in children. It is more likely that it is a small, ruptured blood vessel in the nose that is bleeding. This is especially common if the child has had a cold for a few days.
Cough and fever in children
Teeth: Tooth growth is one of the most common causes of cough and mild fever in young children.
Increased salivation during tooth formation provokes cough. According to some pediatricians, inflammation of the gums during tooth growth can be the reason for an elevated temperature (below 37.5 ° C).
Since tooth growth is a normal process, parents should not worry about these symptoms.
Asthma: Asthma is a respiratory condition that can cause chronic coughing in children.
The main symptoms are:
- Shortness of breath (dyspnea)
- Persistent mucous cough
Respiratory infections: Respiratory infections of bacterial or viral type can cause the following diseases:
1. Bronchitis 2. Pneumonia
4. Tracheitis 5. Croup cough
Fever between 38° C and 39 ° C can also be a reaction to vaccination and should pass within two days.
Cold and flu are the most common causes of cough and fever.
Infections of the upper respiratory tract (nose and throat) cause:
Fever without symptoms in children
A mistake of many parents is to start treatment according to the temperature shown by the thermometer.
The experts, on the other hand, believe that the behavior of the child is the most important thing.
For example, there would be no reason to worry if the child has a high fever but does not behave like a sick person.
In these cases:
- the child must not be dressed too warmly; an increased heartbeat per degree of 10 beats per minute is a normal reaction;
- the child must drink enough to avoid dehydration.
However, infants younger than three months should be presented to the doctor even if they have a mild fever.
Natural remedies for fever and cough in children
Depending on the cause and severity of the condition, some simple home remedies may be helpful:
- To reduce fever
- Against coughing
Expectoration of mucus in catarrh reduces symptoms, but children tend to swallow the mucus.
The use of a steam inhaler is the best method against:
- nasal congestion
- Sore throat
From the old home remedies, gargling with salt water and some turmeric can be helpful.
The child can take a hot bath, because the rising steam helps to clear the nose and liquefy the mucus that provokes the persistent cough.
When to worry about fever of the child?
If the rectal fever measurement (in the anus) shows a value above 37.5 degrees, it means that the child has a fever, while the axillary measurement (in the armpit) shows only 37° C.
Above 40 degrees, the child has a high fever.
Fever can sometimes persist only in the evening. The cause may be a disease such as:
- Gastroenteritis in post-acute phase
In the evening, the body temperature is also higher in healthy people, about 37 ° C.
When to call the doctor?
The normal human body temperature (externally) is below 37 degrees. If the temperature rises above this value, the child has a fever. If the temperature of the child exceeds 37.5 ° C, an infection can begin. The reason for this may be other symptoms of the child such as:
- Viral infection
The doctor must be called if:
- the child is less than one year old;
- the child has a fever without symptoms for a week, which should usually pass after 4 or 5 days;
- the child suffers from symptoms (for example, due to meningitis and pneumonia) such as:
- Neck stiffness
- unusual rashes
- Shortness of breath
When to visit the hospital?
Symptoms that indicate a serious event include:
2. Rapid breathing
3. Pale skin or pallor
4. Severe muscle pain
5. Blue lips
7. Lack of appetite and rejection of food
8. Persistent diarrhea
9. Stomach cramps
If the child shows any of these problems along with fever, it is better to visit the emergency room of the hospital immediately. The doctor may perform some examinations before treatment begins.
Fever that often comes and goes in children
Recurrent fever means that the symptom passes, but often comes back.
Most often it manifests itself together with other serious symptoms such as:
- Persistent vomiting
- Joint pain
Some causes of recurrent fever include:
- Lyme disease (caused by lice or tick bites)
Syndromes of fever that goes and comes in children
There are some genetic diseases in which the sufferer has episodes of periodic fever.
These diseases are known as autoinflammatory diseases, which include:
1. Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), causes:
- Fever of 1-3 days
- Chest and abdominal pain
- Joint pain
2. Hyperimmunoglobulinemia D, a syndrome characterized by an excessive concentration of immunoglobulins in plasma. The disease causes a 5-day fever accompanied by:
- enlarged lymph nodes
- Abdominal and joint pain
3. PFAPA syndrome, a disease that causes aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and adenopathy (enlarged lymph nodes).
Intermittent fever means that the disease does not produce a constant fever. For example, the fever occurs only every other day or again after a few fever-free days.
Causes of intermittent fever
or intestinal flu is characterized by inflammation of:
The cause is an infection by:
- Long-lasting fever
- Lack of appetite
- Blood or mucus in the stool
It is an infection caused by the bacterium Brucella. People who are in contact with infected animals carry an increased risk of contracting it.
The infection is transmitted to humans by:
- Consumption of unpasteurized milk
- Contact with infected animals
Symptoms of this condition include:
- Joint and muscle pain
- profuse sweating
- Fever that rises and falls
is caused by infection with Plasmodium vivax, which causes symptoms such as:
- Intermittent fever
- Joint pain
is characterized by rising fever in the afternoon.
At night there is a night sweat.
In the morning, the patient either has no fever or only elevated temperature.
Without treatment, the disease can:
- last for several months,
- be fatal.
With appropriate treatment, it can be cured within a week.
Persistent fever in children
fever Typhoid fever is one of the most common causes of persistent fever.
It is a disease that affects the gastrointestinal tract and is caused by the bacterium Salmonella Typhi.
Symptoms of typhoid fever include:
- Slowly progressive fever (first week)
- High persistent fever (second week)
- Heavy sweating
Typhoid fever can heal completely or become chronic.
In the case of severe blood infections, such as blood poisoning, fever always occurs. The high fever can also increase during the day.
What to do? How to treat fever in children
With the following natural remedies, it makes no difference whether the child is one, two or seven years old, except for the diet, since infants can not eat solid food.
- If the fever is low, you can go outside, but in winter you should dress the child warmly.
- If the child has a high fever, one should not perform cold washes. The washings as an antipyretic measure have the opposite effect, as the body tries to compensate for the cold with a further increase in body temperature.
- Avoid placing icebags on the child’s body, as this could make the situation worse.
- At night, it is recommended to apply a clay wrap on the stomach. This draws the heat and toxins out of the body.
- Do not cover the child with duvets that are too heavy. A bed sheet over a shirt (minimal clothing) is sufficient.
- Ensure that the child is in a well-ventilated room, even during the winter months.
- The room temperature should not be so low that the child will experience a cold shiver, as chills can increase body temperature. The ideal temperature is between 19° C and 20° C.
What to eat? Diet and nutrition for fever in children
A light diet based on natural and plant foods is recommended.
If the child is not hungry, he should not be forced to eat.
The following should be avoided:
- spicy food.
It is still possible to breastfeed fever.
It is a common assumption that garlic, onion, potato and egg whites lower the fever.
Drinking herbal teas, hot soups and gargling with salt water can relieve the following symptoms:
- Sore throat
- Throat irritation
Hot liquids help loosen mucus.
Fever therapy in children and paracetamol
Antibiotics are only used for fever caused by bacterial infections.
Children and newborns must not be given aspirin because it can cause Reye’s syndrome.
Paracetamol (e.g. Ben-u-ron) is the most commonly prescribed medication that infants can also receive to reduce fever, but only if the doctor or pediatrician prescribes it.
If medication is not necessary, it is better to avoid them.
In addition to taking medicines, children should adhere to bed rest in order to recover quickly.
Some pediatricians will prescribe corticosteroids (for example, Betnesol) instead of acetaminophen if the fever does not drop. But because of the many side effects that cortisone can trigger, great caution is required here.
Some nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen (trade name Nurofen) have an antipyretic effect and may be prescribed by the pediatrician.