Blood in the urine

Hematuria is the medical term for blood in the urine caused by bleeding in the urinary system.

The urine then usually turns red and rarely one notices blood clots.
Sometimes the bleeding occurs at the microscopic level and urine may look normal. In these cases, contained blood can be detected only by laboratory analyzes.



  1. Visible hematuria (also called macrohematuria) occurs when blood is visible to the naked eye.
  2. Invisible hematuria (also called microhematuria) exists when it comes to traces of blood that can be seen during an analysis under a microscope.

Invisible symptomatic hematuria: the associated symptoms are related to the lower urinary tract: behavior, urge, frequency and dysuria.

Non-visible asymptomatic hematuria: detected accidentally or casually in case of analysis.

Even though visible blood in the urine can be scary, in most cases hematuria is not life-threatening and does not cause symptoms.
Nevertheless, the cause of hematuria must be closely investigated, because it may have been caused by a serious illness.

Cloudy urine can be caused by leukocytes. These are white blood cells that are normally found in the blood.
If leukocytes appear in the urine, it means that there is an infection of the urinary system.

Causes of blood in the urine

In hematuria, blood cells enter the urine via the kidneys or other organs of the urinary tract system.

Various conditions can cause blood loss, including:

Urinary tract
infections Urinary tract infections, such as cystitis (cystitis), which can occur when bacteria enter the body through the urethra and multiply in the bladder.
This disorder must be considered in pregnant women because it is quite common, as well as in newborns and infants.
The symptoms consist of constant urge to urinate, pain and burning when urinating, as well as a very strong smell of urine.
For some people, especially the elderly, the only sign of this condition is microscopic traces of blood (microhematuria).

Kidney infections Kidney infections
(pyelonephritis) occur when bacteria enter the kidneys with the bloodstream or ascend to the kidneys via the ureters (ureters).
The signs and symptoms often resemble bladder infection, although kidney infections are much more likely to cause fever and right-sided or left-sided flank pain.

Concentrated urinary minerals sometimes form crystalline deposits on the kidney walls or in the bladder. Over time, these crystals can form small and hard stones.
The stones (or kidney stones) are usually painless and you probably don’t know you have them as long as they don’t cause urinary congestion or leak out.
Usually, there is no doubt when recognizing the symptoms.
Especially kidney stones can cause unbearable pain. Kidney or bladder stones can cause visible or microscopic bleeding.

Prostate enlargement
The prostate is located just below the bladder and encloses the upper part of the urethra, it often begins to enlarge as men approach the age of 50.
If the gland increases its volume, it presses on the urethra and partially obstructs the flow of urine.
Signs and symptoms of an enlarged prostate (benign prostatic hypertrophy) are difficulty urinating, persistent urge to urinate and visible or microscopic blood in the urine.
An infection of the prostate (prostatitis) can cause signs and symptoms.

Kidney disease
Microhematuria is the most common symptom of glomerulonephritis, in which there is inflammation of the filtering system of the kidneys. Glomerulonephritis can be the result of a systemic disease such as diabetes or occur independently.
This disease can be triggered by viral or bacterial (for example, streptococci) infections, by diseases of the blood vessels (vasculitis) and by immunological problems such as IgA nephropathy or nephropathy Berger, which affects the small capillaries that filter the blood in the kidneys (glomeruli).

Cancer Visible blood in the urine can be a sign of advanced cancer of the prostate, bladder or kidneys. Unfortunately, there are no signs or symptoms in the initial stages, when this tumor is still curable.

Hereditary diseases
Sickle cell anemia — an inherited disease of hemoglobin in red blood cells can cause blood in the urine, both in microhematuria and macrohematuria.
Alport syndrome affects the filter membranes in the renal globules.

Kidney damage
Trauma or other injuries to the kidneys caused by an accident or during contact sports can lead to visible blood loss in the urine.

medicines can cause hematuria, for example aspirin, penicillin, anticoagulants such as heparin and cyclophosphamide (Endoxan Baxter), which is an anticancer medicine.

Intensive training
It is not known why exercise leads to visible hematuria. It can be trauma to the bladder, dehydration, or rupture of red blood cells that occur after prolonged aerobic exercise.
Runners are the most affected, although almost every athlete may have blood in their urine after intense training.

Bladder catheter A bladder catheter
can damage the bladder walls during insertion or body movements because it scratches the inner walls of the bladder.
It is important that the medical staff uses it carefully.

What are the accompanying symptoms of blood in the urine?

Some patients are completely asymptomatic, especially when the blood can only be detected in the urine by microscopic examination.

Possible accompanying symptoms:

  • right-sided or left-sided flank pain (often indicates renal obstruction by a kidney stone or kidney tumor),
  • Urinary transom and frequent urination, may indicate a bladder tumor.

Symptoms associated with infection:

  • burning during urination,
  • Urination
  • cloudy or foul-smelling urine.

More severe kidney infection:

  • high fever,
  • Ague
  • Flank pain.

Symptoms of enlarged prostate:

  • Frequent urination, even small amounts of urine, because the prostate presses on the bladder. The need for frequent urination also occurs during sleep
  • ; Urination;
  • difficulty starting to urinate;
  • dripping at the end of urination;
  • Decreased urine flow.


There are various studies to determine the cause of hematuria. Most people don’t need every single test.

  • Urine test: Urine tests can give an indication of the cause of hematuria.
    They include a cytology of urine, in which a microscope is used to analyze the cells from the bladder contents and kidneys (contained in the urine).
    Women should avoid urine testing during their menstrual period because it can affect the outcome.
  • Blood tests: Blood tests can be used to find signs of kidney disease or other conditions that are causing hematuria.
  • CT scan is a radiological examination that reveals the structure of the kidneys, ureters and bladder. These can be visualized using a CT.
    As a rule, a contrast agent is administered through the vein during the examination to show all possible deviations.
  • Ultrasound of the kidneys: an echography of the kidneys is an alternative to CT and more convenient for people who are allergic to the contrast agents used in CT. Echography uses sound waves to provide a picture of kidney structures.
  • Cystoscopy is a procedure used to examine the walls of the bladder to detect possible abnormalities.
    These can be performed surgically in a day clinic.
    A small tube with a camera is inserted through the urethra into the bladder. Before inserting the tube, an anesthetic gel is applied to minimize possible discomfort.
    Most patients tolerate this process very well.
    If the doctor finds abnormal tissue, he may perform a biopsy.
    The material taken during the biopsy is examined under the microscope to detect abnormal cells or the presence of cancer cells.
  • In a kidney biopsy, the doctor takes a small piece of tissue from the kidney; the tissue is then examined under the microscope to see if kidney disease is present.

Differential diagnosis Other causes of reddened or dark urine:

  • Hemoglobinuria: Hemoglobin is found in the urine.
  • Myoglobinuria: presence of myoglobin in the urine.
  • Food, for example, beetroot.
  • Medicines, for example, rifampicin, nitrofurantoin, senna leaves.
  • Porphyria: urine becomes dark.
  • Bilirubinuria: biliary obstruction.

Therapy for blood in the urine

  • If there is visible blood in the urine, you should not try treatment yourself with natural remedies or home remedies. You should consult a doctor immediately.
  • Medical treatment for hematuria
    In many diseases, blood can appear in the urine. Some of these have little medical significance and do not require treatment.
    Other cases can be serious and require prompt therapy.
    Therapy depends on the underlying disease.
  • Kidney stones In most cases of kidney stones, therapy consists of drinking plenty of water and taking painkillers.
    Most kidney stones are excreted on their own via the urinary tract system. In certain cases, more significant measures may be required.
    One form of therapy, called extracorporeal shockwave lithotrypsia, crushes the stones into very small pieces or gravel. The small pieces can pass through the urethra better, even if there is slight pain.
    Another form of therapy is ureteroscopy, in which the stones are found in the ureter and removed using a fine, flexible device similar to an endoscope.
  • Urinary tract infection
    The therapy serves to remove the bacteria responsible for the infection.
    If there is no other significant disease, then depending on the cause of infection, a cycle with antibiotics over three to fourteen days is useful.
  • Benign prostate enlargement
    Sometimes it’s helpful to stop taking medications that irritate the prostate or interfere with urine flow. Rarely, medication or surgery is needed to reduce the size of the prostate.
  • Medicinal product
    If a medicine causes hematuria, the doctor may stop treatment and recommend an alternative. Some medicines discolour urine without causing hematuria. The doctor must decide whether the medication can continue to be taken.
    Do not stop taking a drug independently without talking to the doctor.
  • Narrowing of the urinary tract A blockage usually requires surgical intervention or other procedures to correct or remove the cause.
  • Tissue damage These may heal on their own over time or require surgery or other forms of treatment to repair the damage
    or remove damaged tissue.

Natural remedies for blood in the urine

For urinary tract infection, kidney stones or prostatitis, a natural diet can be very helpful for recovery.
In conventional medicine, as a rule, no diet for curing diseases is indicated, but medications.
Based on my experience, I have found that the best results are achieved through two types of nutrition:

  1. The blood group diet according to Dr. D’Adamo/Mozzi, which provides a different diet for each blood group. In particular, it is recommended to avoid dairy products in case of problems with the prostate and kidney stones, while in case of infections, pork, cold cuts, pepper, chilli powder, creamy desserts, tea and tomatoes should also be avoided.
  2. Shelton’s Natural Hygiene theory calls for a healthy lifestyle and a vegan/raw diet, with plenty of fruits and raw vegetables, nuts, seeds and legumes.

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