Urinary infection is a disease caused by the invasion of parasitic microorganisms in the body, for example viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, etc.
Many living things live inside and outside our bodies.
Usually, these organisms are harmless or even helpful, but under certain conditions, can cause a disease.
Some infectious diseases can be transmitted from person to person.
Other infections are transmitted by insect or animal bites .
It is possible to develop an infectious disease from ingestion of food or contaminated water or other exposures in the environment.
A small infection can be treated with home remedies, while others can be life-threatening and need hospitalization.
Causes of infection
Infectious diseases can be caused by:
Bacteria . These organisms consist of a single cell and are responsible for diseases such as sore throat , urinary tract infections and tuberculosis .
Virus . Even though they are smaller than bacteria, viral infections include many diseases, such as herpes and AIDS.
Fungi . Many of the skin diseases such as ringworm and athlete’s foot are caused by fungi.
Other types of fungi can infect the lungs or nervous system.
Parasites . Malaria is caused by a tiny parasite and is transmitted by a mosquito bite.
Other parasites can be transmitted to humans by animal feces.
Types of infection
Urinary tract infection
Urinary tract infection is found in any part of the urinary system: kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra.
Women have a higher risk of developing a urinary tract infection than men. A bladder infection can be painful and irritating. However, there can be serious consequences spreads to the kidneys.
Patients with catheters who undergo urinary surgery or men with enlarged prostateare at increased risk of urinary tract infections.
Symptoms of a urinary tract infection vary according to gender (male or female), age and the infected area; certain symptoms develop according to the infectious agent.
Symptoms of urinary tract infection include: vaginal painor rectal, burning sensation in the skin , constant urge to urinate , blood in the urine and fever .
The Candida is a fungus normally infects the skin. It is quite common and can involve virtually any area of the skin or body. It is usually seen in hot, humid environments such as the armpits and groin. Candida
infection or Candidiasis is more common in people with: An immune system weakened due to certain medications and diseases, such as
Symptoms of a candida infection or candidiasis of the skin are: severe itching , rashes on the skin folds, on the genital organs, buttocks, under the breasts and on other areas of the skin
Hygiene and health in general are very important for treatment of candida infections.
Keep skin dry and exposed to air.
Antifungals can be applied as creams, ointments or powders, for the treatment of a candida infection of the mouth or vagina skin.
Oral antifungal medications may be needed for severe candida infections involving the mouth , throat, or vagina.
The bacterial vaginosis is an infection that occurs when certain types of bacteria found in the vagina grow too.
It is the most common cause of vaginal discharge in women of childbearing age. Normally the vaginal discharge is thin and yellow or white-gray with a fish odor.
Possible triggers for bacterial vaginosis are:
- Perfumed soaps or feminine hygiene sprays
- An intrauterine contraceptive system (IUS)
- Antibiotics .
The possible symptoms are:
- A bad smell in the vagina that may look like fish
- More secretions (fluid) from the vagina than usual
- Gray or white and milky secretions
- Itching around the vagina.
Intestinal infection is a disease caused by pathogens that invade the digestive tract.
The large intestine is the lower part of the human digestive tract. It is the seat of many types of bacteria that cause infections.
However, some harmful bacteria may be present in a number high enough to cause the disease. Similarly, viruses or other pathogens can cause an infection.
When a person has an intestinal infection they may experience quite unpleasant symptoms, such as diarrhea . In some cases, bowel movements are not normal, feeding dislocation becomes difficult. Feces may have a different shape or color.
In addition to symptoms such as the appearance and consistency of faeces, intestinal infection can cause bloating and flatulence (gas).
The abdomen may become dislodged and you may feel a feeling of discomfort.
In some cases, an intestinal infection is accompanied by fever or bleeding of the rectum .
Once the doctor has determined the cause of the intestinal infection, you can decide the most appropriate treatment. The therapy may include antibiotics or rests and fluids, depending on the severity of the infection and the cause. In some cases laxatives are also prescribed.
Blood infection or sepsis
Sepsis or septicemia is a disease in which the body is struggling against a serious infection that has spread through the bloodstream. If a patient has sepsis, he probably suffers from low blood pressure which leads to poor circulation and lack of nutrients for vital organs and tissues.
This disorder is called shock and sometimes indicated as septic shock if the infection is the cause.
Septicemia develops as a consequence of the body’s defense system, or because of toxic substances produced from the infectious agent (eg, bacteria, viruses or fungi).
Since sepsis can start in different parts of the body, there can be several symptoms. Rapid breathing and a change in mental status such as decreased alertness or confusion may be the first signs of sepsis.
Other frequent symptoms are:
- Fever and tremors, chills or alternatively a very low body temperature
- Decreased urination (urine production)
- Fast heartbeat
- Quick Breathing
- Nausea and vomiting
Tratamento para perché
The first step in curing sepsis is a quick diagnosis. When sepsis is suspected, the doctor performs tests to look for bacteria, white blood cell counts , platelets, and blood pressure.
Sepsis therapy usually begins with:
- Broad spectrum antibiotics that kill many types of bacteria
- Fluids to keep blood pressure at normal levels
- Oxygen to maintain normal blood oxygenation.
Once you have identified the infectious agent, your doctor may switch to a specific drug for that particular agent.
We can come in contact with pathogenic organisms also by indirect contact.
Many microbes can remain in an object, such as a table, a handle or faucet.
When you touch a door handle that has been in contact with an infected individual, you can pick up the germs that he left behind. If you then touch your eyes, mouth or nose before washing your hands, you may become infected.
Food Contamination , pathogens also use another way to spread through contaminated water and food.
This transmission mechanism allows the germs to infect many people from a single source.
Fruits can be contaminated
Escherichia coli, for example, is a bacterium present in certain foods like undercooked hamburger or dirty fruits and vegetables.
Each infectious disease has its own specific signs and symptoms.
In general, the most frequent symptoms are:
More infectious diseases can cause only mild complications, but some infections, such as pneumonia , meningitis, and AIDS can be fatal.
Some types of infections have been linked to an increased long-term risk for cancer:
- The human papillomavirus is associated with cervical cancer or throat cancer
- Hepatitis B and C increases the risk of liver cancer
- The Helicobacter pylori is associated with stomach cancer .
Test and Diagnosis
With the blood test you may notice an increase in neutrophils which usually indicates a bacterial infection or we may see an increase in lymphocytes that is linked to a viral infection.
The other parameters to be controlled if you suspect an infection are erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C – reactive protein.
The urine test looks at the color of the urine, if the color is greenish or if there is blood it may indicate a urinary tract infection. If the urine has an odor of sanitary water it can be a bacterial infection.
Other diagnostic tests are useful for infections: pharyngeal cap, lumbar puncture, radiography , magnetic resonance imaging, and biopsy.
Treatments and drugs
If your doctor knows the type of germ that causes the disease choosing the right treatment is easier.
Antibiotics are grouped into equal families.
Bacteria are classified into groups of similar types, such as Escherichia coli or Streptococcus.
Some types of bacteria are particularly sensitive to particular families of antibiotics. Thus, the treatment is more targeted and the results are better.
Antibiotics are indicated only for bacterial infections, while these types of drugs have no effect on virus infections.
It is sometimes difficult to tell which type of germ is responsible for the pathology.
For example, some types of pneumonia are caused by viruses, while others are caused by bacteria.
The exertional use of antibiotics causes the formation of bacteria that are more resistant to antibiotics.
This makes it much more difficult to eliminate these pathogens.
Antiviral drugs have been developed for the treatment of certain viruses, for example:
Mycoses are fungal infections that can affect the lungs or mucous membranes of the mouth and throat, most often in people who have a weakened immune system. Antifungals are the medications of choice for this type of infection.
Some diseases like malaria are caused by small parasites.
There are medications for the treatment of these diseases, some varieties of parasites that have developed drug resistance.
Lifestyle & Home Remedies
An infectious disease like colds can heal on its own.
You have to drink plenty of fluids and rest.