Bruises on the legs (contusions or ecchymoses) are injuries to the tissue that is located under the skin.
This usually happens when a person is beaten or hit hard.
The skin surface remains intact and shows no signs of injury.
Blood leaks from the ruptured blood vessels but remains trapped under the skin.
Later, the trapped blood becomes a purple or red spot under the skin, which becomes visible to the outside.
This is a bruise that hurts when touched..
This does not always stay that way, the color changes over the course of the days.
Bruises can also form under the nails, in this case it is called a subungual hematoma.
The color of the tissue under the nail is black.
Predisposed people can get bruises after an insect bite, for example, from a mosquito.
Causes of bruising on the legs
When capillaries (or small blood vessels) rupture, a small amount of blood accumulates under the skin, which can lead to unexplained bruising.
Causes of bruising on the legs include:
Platelets are used to occlusion injured blood vessels and to stop bleeding.
A very low number of platelets favors the formation of large bruises (it is advisable to have a blood test to rule out such a disorder).
There are many factors that can cause this disease.
Cause of decreased platelets can be:
- Insufficient production in the bone marrow, for example, in aplastic anemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, metastases and bone marrow granulomas,
- Accelerated destruction, may be caused by: thrombotic microangiopathy, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and immune thrombocytopenia (ITP).
- Splenic sequestration. Sequestration of platelets in the spleen may be caused by:
- Portal hypertension (the portal vein), which can be a consequence of heart failure, thrombosis of the hepatic vein or vena cava (Budd-Chiari syndrome),
- cirrhosis – caused by chronic viral hepatitis or alcoholic hepatitis,
- Pooling of platelets in the spleen: role in the pathogenesis of “hypersplenic” thrombocytopenia – Aster RH – J Clin Invest. 1966 May; 45(5):645-57).
You can observe the formation of red spots on the legs.
The liver produces clotting factors, which are proteins that serve to close injuries to blood vessels.
If the liver is not working properly, bruising or bleeding may easily occur.
Von Willebrand disease
Von Willebrand disease is a very rare genetic disorder that can cause bruises without cause.
The blood does not clot properly and the affected person can, for example, develop massive bleeding in the nose and gums. In addition, these people are predestined to get unexplained bruises and hematomas.
In some cases, symptoms are mild and the condition goes unnoticed. Desmopressin is used as a drug to treat von Willebrand disease.
Another cause may be purpura.
In this condition, the blood vessels tend to burst and cause mild ecchymosis on the legs.
There are several forms of purpura, including:
- Immune thrombocytopenic purpura, it is related to the action of a drug or a virus,
- The thrombocytopenic or idiopathic purpura – The mechanism of destruction of platelets is always immunological, there is no viral or autoimmune disease or a drug that attacks the platelets.
A virus or drug can change the antigens on the platelet surface.
The organism cannot recognize the altered platelet and therefore produces antibodies against it.
As a result, the immune system destroys these blood cells.
This condition is most common in women.
Acanthosis nigricans is a condition that causes brown or black spots on the skin, especially in the folds of the joints of:
It is a thickening of the stratum corneum of the epidermis caused by excessive production of epidermal growth factor (EGF).
If the doctor has not diagnosed diabetes, it is necessary to pay attention to other signs, including:
- Strong thirst,
- frequent urination,
- Frequent infections,
- blurred vision,
In these cases, it is recommended to take a blood test for diabetes.
According to the blood group diet, the cause of capillary fragility, and therefore bruises, lies in the diet, which contains:
For example, the cause of varicose veins is found in ripe fatty cheeses.
According to this theory, milk and dairy products are not suitable for the body and lead to a negative reaction of the immune system.
Other causes of the appearance of bruises
Medications such as aspirin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (ibuprofen), and some antibiotics can increase the likelihood of developing unexplained hematomas.
Some of these conditions that produce bruises without cause are:
- Hodgkin’s disease
- Diseases of connective tissue such as Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Marfan syndrome and lupus.
- Haemophilia and von Willebrand disease: these are diseases in which the blood does not clot normally.
- Leukemia and multiple myeloma: these are blood cancers. In leukemia, there are immature blood cells that accumulate in the bone marrow, and then in the blood. These immature cells form a mass that hinders the production of mature and functioning blood cells: platelets, white and red blood cells. The result is the slight development of bruises.
- Cirrhosis: This condition reduces the liver’s ability to produce the proteins that regulate blood clotting.
- Acute pancreatitis: In this disease, there is a sudden inflammation of the pancreas, which can lead to the formation of many hematomas in the abdominal area.
- Sepsis: This is a diffuse inflammation of the blood.
Some young women observe bruises after exercising at the gym.
The cause can be trauma during fit or Thai boxing, but in many cases the hematomas appear just like that and without an abrupt or violent movement.
In newborns and young children who do not yet speak, the doctor can not rule out violence as the cause of hematomas.
Surgery always causes bluish discoloration or hematomas.
Even a simple procedure, such as the obliteration of varicose veins or liposuction, can cause hematomas.
Intramuscular injections given in the gluteal muscle can cause round, small hematomas.
Causes of bruises that do not pass
Bruises that do not disappear can be the result of:
Taking anticoagulant medications or that impair clotting ability such as:
- chemotherapy medicinal products (such as hydroxyurinary rod or methotrexate),
- Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories.
Deficiency of vitamin C and zinc, which are necessary for collagen production and wound healing.
With poor circulation, the cells and substances needed to reach the lesions need more time to get to the bruise.
The causes of circulatory disorders include:
- Varicose veins
- venous insufficiency,
- Raynaud’s disease.
Swollen legs and arms – due to fluid retention:
- In the tissues, the pressure is increased,
- The blood vessels become rigid,
This limits the blood flow.
Infections can almost stop the wound healing process. According to St. Lukas Clinic, infection hinders the regeneration of healthy tissue, for example, it increases the duration of inflammation.
In addition, there are bacterial strains that interfere with the coagulation mechanisms and can thus promote bleeding. According to a 2010 study in the Journal of Dental Research, the two most harmful bacterial strains are Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus.
Causes of bruising on the leg with no apparent cause
One of the causes can be diabetes.
Unexplained bruises occur more often in women than in men, because they have more often:
- circulatory problems,
- Water retention (legs and ankles swollen).
Often women complain of spots all over the legs, thighs, buttocks and arms.
Women with venous weakness or significant water retention may get bruises due to a massage because it leads to the rupture of capillaries.
They may also be due to a lack of vitamin C (as this increases the fragility of capillaries), vitamin B12, folic acid and vitamin K.
To avoid a vitamin deficiency, you have to pay attention to the diet, especially in children.
Orally or intravenously administered corticosteroids can lead to fragility of capillaries, making the person susceptible to spontaneous bruising.
Symptoms of bruising on the body
The symptoms manifest themselves in a reddish-purple zone, as if there were tiny red dots or spots on the skin.
The bleeding under the skin leads to a bluish, reddish or purple color, which acquires a green or yellow color over time.
Often bruises hurt in the first few days, but when they turn yellow or green, they should no longer be painful.
Blood accumulations tend to shift down by 10-20 cm in a week due to gravity.
For example, trauma to the eye (also called a “violet”) can form a hematoma in the area of the zygomatic bone after a few days.
When to worry about bruises on your legs?
If bruises form everywhere, especially at night, without previous blows or trauma, you should consult a doctor, as the cause can be a serious illness.
Formation of frequent bruises on the legs
One can observe the formation of frequent ecchymoses on the legs as a side effect of medication or due to some underlying diseases.
Often you see ecchymosis in children who play and are active throughout the day.
Red or bluish spots develop on the skin when they bump into something.
The cause is obviously a contusion, i.e. injuries to the soft tissue and the small blood vessels under the skin.
Even though bruises can occur on all parts of the body, arms and legs are more predisposed.
Causes of mild hematomas on the legs
According to experts, bruises on the legs and arms are more common the older the person is.
In children and adolescents, this problem may be due to an underlying medical condition.
These people are predisposed to develop bruises with no apparent cause.
- They can also be caused by coagulation disorders of the blood.
- Cortisone-containing medications and some food integrators (ginkgo and fish oil).
- Also, people who take anticoagulant drugs can often get bruises.
- Older people suffer more often from the fragility of the capillaries and the small blood vessels rupture even with minor collisions.
Natural remedies for bruises on the legs
Drugs used for bruises must not enter the area of the eyes, mouth and nose.
It is also important:
- Not to drain the bruise through incisions into the skin,
- Avoid intense physical activity so as not to aggravate the hematoma.
Here are some therapies that can be done at home to reduce bruises on the face and other parts of the body:
Ice: One of the easiest and most effective ways to combat bruising is the ice pack, but only in the first 24 hours after trauma.
Wrap the ice pack in a towel.
Place this envelope on the bruised area every hour and for 15 minutes at a time to reduce the hematoma. This helps reduce swelling and relieves pain.
Warm compresses: Like ice compresses, you can also try warm compresses to reduce the hematoma.
The warm compress is placed in the affected area to reduce pain.
It should be noted that cold compresses are good for sprains, swelling or recent bruises.
On the other hand, hot compresses are used to treat a subacute injury (after the first two days).
Medication: Do not take painkillers such as aspirin or warfarin. On the other hand, paracetamol is better suited to relieve pain (efferalgan).
This drug can be obtained without a prescription, it helps with hematomas of the skin.
Vitamins or other integrators can increase the likelihood of developing bruises. So it’s better to talk to the doctor before taking supplements.
Arnica: Arnica is a natural medication used to treat bruises and can be purchased over the counter.
For dark and swollen hematomas, arnica gel should be applied to the affected area every 3 hours.
- Helps reduce bruising or swelling,
- Lightens the blue discoloration.
However, if redness or itching occurs after the first use, it means that the skin is allergic to arnica. You should then cancel the application.
Eat healthy foods: Eat foods rich in vitamin C and vitamin K, as vitamin C prevents the formation of ecchymoses and vitamin K is necessary for blood clotting and healing.
Foods that contain a lot of vitamin C include:
Foods rich in vitamin K are dark vegetables such as:
One can also incorporate grape seeds into the diet, as they have strong antioxidant properties and reduce the formation of frequent ecchymoses.
immobilization: A common recommendation for contusions is immobilization.
It is recommended to store the injured part of the body high so that the blood flows down and towards the heart. This reduces bruising.
For example, if you have stains on your thigh, you put your leg on a table (on a pillow).
How to hide bruises?
To choose the right makeup, color analysis of the bruise is required. The blue of the bruise is compensated by yellow make-up.
For red ecchymosis you need a light brown make-up.
The best type of makeup is a concealer, which can be spread on the bruise, but do not apply cream before the concealer, because then the result is worse and the effect is shorter.
If make-up is used on the bruise, the area around the hematoma must also be covered.
In this way, the make-up on the skin does not appear unnatural or irregular.
How long do bruises persist on the body?
When the blood absorbs, the hematoma changes color. So the color of the contusion indicates how long it will last.
The moment the blood is seen under the skin, the hematoma has a reddish color.
After a few days, the hemoglobin in the hematoma changes color.
The bruise becomes blue-purple or black after 1 or 2 days.
After about 5-10 days, ecchymoses may appear slightly yellowish or greenish. As a result, the bruise becomes brown-yellowish or brownish after about 10-14 days. The healing times are usually 2-3 weeks.
However, in some cases, the hematomas can persist for a month, especially in the elderly.
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