Sore throat is one of the most common diseases in the world. It can be a symptom of other illnesses like flu and colds . 
Sore throat is inflammation of the larynx , pharynx and tonsils, is usually bilateral, but may be unilateral (right or left).


What are the causes of sore throat?

Tonsillitis or pharyngitis
The inflammation of the tonsils causes tonsillitis , while the inflamed pharynx causes pharyngitis .

Sore throat

These diseases are the most common causes of sore throat when swallowing. 
The cause may be a bacterial or viral infection . 
The contagion is direct, the virus in the air is transmitted through the droplets of an infected person.

Mononucleosis is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus. 
Along with the sore throat, the person also has a  fever . 
About 95% of the world’s population was infected with the Epstein-Barr virus. 
The way of transmitting this virus is through saliva, especially during kissing.

Cancer and tumors
Oral cancer or laryngeal cancer can cause a persistent sore throat. However, the tumor is not always malignant. 
Cancer mainly originates in the laryngeal glottis, but metastases eventually form (eg in the lymph nodes) and it spreads to other organs.

The sexually transmitted diseases like chlamydia and gonorrhea can be responsible for the sore throat. 
In this case, the duration can be a month or even longer.


Signs and symptoms that may occur along with a sore throat

Swelling of the throat and bright red 
-Manchas dark red on the back of the throat 
high -Febre 
– Swollen lymph nodes  in the neck that hurt to touch 
inflamed -Amígdalas with pus 
– White plates or gray in the tonsils 
– Headache
– Pain joints
– Nausea
-dor swallowing, yawning and coughing when 
– Loss of appetite
– rash (scarlet fever) 
– Runny nose
– Pain in the neck
– muscle pain
Stiffness of joints
– Earache
– Clogged ears


Tonsils swollen without sore throat

A person may have swollen tonsils due to a sore throat, allergy , sinusitis , etc. 
There are also other factors that can cause tonsillitis . 
A viral or bacterial infection caused by contact with an infected person can cause swollen tonsils. 
Often, young children have chronic tonsillitis due to cold or flu. 
Adults and adolescents often have swollen tonsils due to bacterial infections. 
In rare cases, bacteria that cause certain diseases, such as scarlet fever or diphtheria, can cause swollen tonsils. 
Food allergies can cause swollen tonsils.


Swollen uvula and sore throat

A sore throat is often accompanied by swollen uvula.

Symptoms of sore throat and inflamed uvula 
1. It is impossible to swallow because of pain 
2. Presence of white patches and pus in the throat 
3. Nausea 
4. Headache 
5. Swollen and inflamed tonsils 
6. High fever 
7. Hoarseness or dysphonia
8. Frequent craving for coughing.


What are the causes of ear pain and sore throat?

The sore throat is inflammation of the tonsils, larynx and pharynx. 
Most of the time, sore throat is caused by microbial infections, which can be treated with different over-the-counter medications.

Earache is the result of an infection of the outer, middle, or inner ear ( otitis ). 
The ears and throat are connected together; therefore, a disorder in any of these organs can influence the other.

Sore throat is the main culprit of ear pain. 
The cause of pain in the ears and throat on one side can only be an infection on one side of the throat. 
The discomfort is felt only on that side, while the other is completely normal. 
Below are some causes of sore throats that also cause ear pain.

  • Tonsillitis
  • Ear Infections
  • Allergic Rhinitis
  • Sinusitis
  • Uvula infection
  • Cough
  • Gripes and colds
  • Tooth infection
  • Allergy
  • Excessive use of vocal cords (eg screaming)
  • Smoke
  • Drink alcohol in excess
  • Eat very hot or cold foods


Morning sore throat

Throat pain in the morning is a fairly common problem and in most cases is not caused by a real illness such as the cold or the flu. 
It is often caused by the environment, very dry air at home or at work or by cigarette smoke (also the smoke emitted by electronic cigarettes). 
In addition, some disorders such as sleep apnea or gastroesophageal reflux  can cause sore throat when waking up in the morning.


Sore throat in the afternoon and evening

Sore throat that occurs only in the afternoon or at night can be an environmental problem: the person may be allergic to pollen, animal hair or mildew that can be found in the air. 
In addition, the air the person breathes can be very dry, especially in a heated house. 
External irritants can be harmful, including smoking. 
A sore throat can be caused by gastroesophageal reflux which causes the esophagus to rise from acids accumulated in the stomach. 
This phenomenon may be more intense after meals, for example, dinner. 
If the sore throat occurs at night, after you have shouted, the cause is probably the muscular effort.


What to do against sore throat? Treatment and medication

Generally, your doctor prescribes an oral antibiotic , such as:

Penicillin . It is possible to inject this medication, for example, if the sore throat is strong and the child can not swallow or have vomiting.

Amoxicillin (for example Amoxil®). This medicine is in the same category as penicillin, but is a preferred option for children because it tastes better and is available in a chewable tablet form. 
If the patient is allergic to penicillin, the doctor can probably prescribe:

  • A cephalosporin,
  • Clarithromycin (for example Klaricid),
  • Azithromycin (for example Zitromax),
  • Clindamicina.

These antibiotics reduce the duration and intensity of symptoms, and also reduce the risk of complications and the chances of transmission of the disease.

Drugs anti-inflammatory and analgesic 
The doctor may recommend non-prescription drugs to relieve sore throat and reduce fever , for example: 
1. Ibuprofen (Advil), 
2. Ketoprofen, 
3. Paracetamol (Sonridor, Tylenol, etc.).

Children should not be given aspirin because it can cause Reye’s syndrome, which is very dangerous.

If the sore throat does not go away, it is possible to take cortisone medicines  (eg Betnelan ®), which are very strong anti-inflammatories.

Mouthwash and Spray
It is possible to use mouthwashes and mouthwashes that give quick relief but are only indicated for adults. 
Among mouthwashes and anti-inflammatory sprays to reduce inflammation in the throat are: 
1. Benzitrat, 
2. Benzidamine (Flogoral).


Natural Remedies for Sore Throat

There are many natural methods to reduce the symptoms of sore throats without taking medications.

Among the home remedies are:

Hot and Cold
Drinks Drinking hot beverages is one of the best remedies to relieve pain and inflammation of the throat. 
For example, it is possible to drink ginger tea, herbal tea, etc. 
In the summer it is possible to take granitas, ice cream or put an ice cube in your mouth for some temporary relief, but this does not help reduce inflammation.

Lemon and honey
Lemon has natural antibacterial properties and honey is an excellent remedy against congestion. 
Mix 2 teaspoons of honey in warm water and 1-2 drops of lemon juice. Drink the mixture 1 – 2 times a day.

cider vinegar Apple cider vinegar helps in the treatment of infections. 
A blend of lemon, honey, apple cider vinegar and cayenne pepper is one of the most effective remedies against sore throat.

  • Take a tablespoon of apple cider vinegar, one tablespoon of honey, one teaspoon of cayenne pepper and one tablespoon of lemon juice.
  • Pour everything into a glass of hot water,
  • Stir and drink three times a day.

The garlic is a natural antibiotic and antiseptic that helps to treat infections. 
It is possible to add it to food during meals or put 2-3 cloves of garlic clove in honey and eat it after an hour.

I recommend preparing a dinner like this:

  • Mince 2 cloves garlic,
  • Chop a piece of ginger (about 20 grams),
  • Cook a bowl of rice with vegetables and after cooked add garlic and ginger,
  • Drink hot water or an infusion of ginger and honey.

Ginger tea

  • Heat a cup of water.
  • When the water boils, turn off the heat, remove the lid from the pan and wait 10 minutes. 
    It is not recommended to put ginger and lemon in boiling water because at that temperature the nutrients degenerate and lose their nutritional properties.
  • Add a piece of ginger, about 20 / 30g.
  • You can also put half a lemon without peel in the pan.
  • Close the pan with a lid and wait for 20 minutes.
  • When the water is warm, strain the infusion.
  • Drink once or twice a day.

Licorice is another Granny remedy for sore throat and gives quick relief. 
It is an ingredient that is used in many herbal teas.

Basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum) is an herb with natural healing properties. 
It is possible to boil some basil leaves to gargle with water.

teas Herbal teas are very effective against sore throats. 
They can be prepared with the following ingredients: 
1. Red clover, 
2. Barberry, 
3. Chamomile, 
4. Honeysuckle, 
5. Ulmus rubra, 
6. Eucalyptus, 
7. Licorice, 
8. Cayenne pepper, 
9. Sage .


Gargle with salt water

The water and salt solution relieves sore throat and also numbs the nose.

☞ Take a container with one liter of warm water. 
☞ Add 3 tablespoons of baking soda . 
☞ Shake the contents until the mixture is completely dissolved. Then do the gargle several times a day. 
☞ Close the container with a lid and place it in the refrigerator. Warm up and shake the contents before use.


Is it better the heat or the cold?

This is a question that patients often ask because they do not know how to behave. 
The cold should act as an anti-inflammatory in the acute phase, but it is not for treating, it only allows reducing the pain temporarily. 
The heat increases the cellular metabolism and then facilitates the cure; in fact, fever (temperature rise) is a mechanism of the body to fight against many diseases.


Sore throat remedies in women during pregnancy and lactation

Generally, sore throat during pregnancy is a symptom of a viral infection or irritation in the pharynx. 
The only remedy that can be taken is acetaminophen (Paracetamol); so it is better to take natural remedies. 
Ginger tea is an effective remedy. 
Add honey and half a lemon in a cup of hot tea and drink. 
When preparing the tea, add a piece of ginger and boil. 
Then add half the lemon and a tablespoon of honey.

For sore throat that does not pass, an excellent natural remedy is gargle with propolis (resinous substance obtained by bees) because it has an antibacterial action and strengthens the immune system. 
It should be used preventively, especially if the patient has recurrent sore throat.


Homeopathic Remedies for Sore Throat

Homeopathy is a therapy that can be performed alone or in combination with other medications.

Belladonna: this is the homeopathic medicine most commonly used for sore throat, dry mouth , burning and red tonsils.

Mercurius: is indicated when the throat or nose is inflamed and for colds .

Phytolacca: With this homeopathic remedy it is possible to treat inflamed tonsils, laryngitis, croup, swollen lymph glands and other diseases.


How long it takes? The prognosis of the patient with sore throat

Treatment with medicines or natural remedies should reduce symptoms within 2/3 days. 
Seek a pediatrician if your child or baby does not feel better after taking antibiotics for 48 hours. 
If children are taking antibiotics, feel good and do not have a fever, they can go back to school. 
The child ceases to be contagious approximately 24 hours after the start of treatment.

The time to heal from sore throat is 5/6 days, less than a week.

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