Gum inflammation is common and can affect adults, the elderly and even children.


Causes of gingivitis

Causes of inflamed gums include:


Plaque or plaque forms at the gum line and irritates the mucous membranes, causing inflammation and pain. Plaque consists of a large number of bacterial cells that attach themselves to the tooth surface (biofilm). The plaque solidifies into tartar.
Tartar can cause an infection in the mouth.

Allergic reactions to certain foods (nuts, mussels, soy) can cause gum problems, such as pain, inflammation, overheating and itching. These conditions can also be caused by certain medications, such as cyclosporine (drug from the group of immunosuppressants), phenytoin (anticonvulsant), nifedipine (drug for high blood pressure).

Bacterial, fungal and viral infections can cause an inflammatory reaction of the gums.
The inflammation causes gum swelling, injuries, pain in gums and teeth, sore throat, enlarged lymph nodes on the neck, fever, bad breath and, in severe cases, an abscess.
Microorganisms that can infect the gums include:

  • Porphyromonas gingivalis
  • Treponema pallidum
  • Streptococcus
  • Candida
  • Histoplasma capsulatum
  • Herpes simplex
  • Varicella zoster

Aphthae are painful, roundish ulcers that can form in various places in the mouth, such as inside the lips, inside the cheeks, tongue and gums.
Aphthae can be confused with cold sores (herpes labialis), which is caused by the herpes simplex virus. A distinguishing feature is the location of occurrence: aphthae form inside the mouth, while cold sores are found on the outside of the lip.

Pyogenic granuloma

The pyogenic granuloma is not a cancer, even if the name suggests so. It is a benign lump on the gums that often occurs in the second trimester of pregnancy and causes discomfort, pain and swelling of the gums.
The pyogenic granuloma can be provoked by the fluctuations in hormones in pregnancy. In some cases, the granuloma disappears again after termination of pregnancy.
Sometimes granulomas are caused by tartar or poor oral hygiene. Experts have noted that granulomas develop as an inflammatory response to local irritation.Periodontitis

If gingivitis is not treated, periodontitis (formerly called periodontitis) can develop. The bacteria contained in the plaque cause the gums to retract, the necks of the teeth are exposed and pockets form between the teeth and gums. These gingival pockets deepen and the teeth may fall out.
Periodontitis has a very slow course and can be cured, especially in children.
The best treatment for periodontitis is good oral hygiene.
Inflammation of the gums (gingivitis) and tooth bed (periodontitis) are common diseases, but can be prevented by brushing your teeth regularly.

Oral trauma can cause injury and bleeding to the gum tissue. Teeth and gums must be cleaned to reduce the risk of infection.
You can cool the cheek from the outside with ice to reduce inflammation and swelling.

The following dental treatments can cause injuries to the gums:

  • Tooth filling for caries
  • Bridge
  • Pulling the wisdom tooth
  • Dental crown
  • Prosthesis
  • Surgery

Inflamed gums can occur as a symptom of leukemia and various cancers.
If the patient shows the following signs, he should undergo a medical check as soon as possible:

  • Nodal formation
  • stained gums
  • Bleeding in the mouth
  • Fatigue
  • night sweating

Inflammation of the gums can be provoked by the use of poorly fitting dentures.
After vigorous tooth cleaning, the gums often become inflamed and bleed, as well as when using a toothbrush with hard bristles.

Other causes

  • Mucosal injuries
  • Ulcers
  • Stress

Risk factors for gingivitis

Smoking Smoking
is the main reason for the development of gum disease. In addition, this vice can slow down the healing process.

Hormone fluctuations in women
Fluctuations in hormone levels after ovulation and before menstrual periods increase the likelihood of gingivitis.

Diabetes mellitus
Diabetics are at high risk of developing infections, including gum disease.

Other diseases diseases
such as cancer and AIDS lead to health problems of the gums.

Medications There are medications
that reduce salivation, which protects the mouth. Without saliva, the mouth is more susceptible to infection and other gum disease.
Certain medicines can cause swelling of the gums, such as phenytoin (anticonvulsant).
This makes oral hygiene and cleaning teeth and gums more difficult.

Predisposition Some people are more prone to gum disease than others.

Signs and symptoms of gingivitis

With inflamed gums, numerous accompanying symptoms occur. Often they are also observed in people who suffer from inflammation of the tooth bed or periodontitis.
Symptoms include:

  • Bleeding gums
  • Toothache
  • sensitive gums
  • Gum shrinkage
  • Tartar
  • loose teeth
  • bright red mucosa
  • dark red or purple gums

The redness is a sign of infection because the microbes have caused a defensive reaction.

What to do? Treatment of gingivitis

If the symptoms do not subside over time (after a month), the dentist may prescribe fluorine rinses or an antibiotic to treat the infection.
Teeth cleaning is of utmost importance because it removes bacteria and hard-to-reach plaque.
If it is a serious swelling of the gums, surgery or laser therapy is recommended.

Natural remedies for gingivitis

Toothbrush Many gum diseases can be cured by brushing your teeth more frequently.
The toothbrush should have soft bristles and the teeth should be brushed at least twice a day.
The cleaning technique is also important: the movement of the hand must be decisive, but must not be too energetic.
All tooth surfaces must be brushed off with gentle and circular movements.

Floss should be flossed at least once a day. It is important to use it before going to bed and after meals.
With the help of dental floss, food residues can be removed from the interdental spaces, which is not possible with the toothbrush.
Food leftovers attract bacteria. These microorganisms produce dangerous acids that cause gum disease.

Dental floss must be passed from bottom to top through the interdental space, not the other way around, because it could cause pain and micro-injuries if it comes into contact with the gums.

Mouthwashes help keep the oral cavity clean.
You can use hydrogen peroxide, vinegar, water with bicarbonate, Malventee or gargle solutions.
It is important to spit out these liquids after gargling and not to swallow them.

Clove oil is also frequently used. If the gum swelling is caused by bacteria, clove oil has a natural antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effect; it fights the microbes and relieves the pain.
The oil is applied to the affected areas with a cotton ball. One can also perform mouthwashes with clove oil; add 3-4 drops of oil to a glass of water and gargle with it twice a day.

Alternatively, in case of acute inflammation, hold cold water in your mouth (about 1 minute) or suck an ice cube; repeat this measure every 5 minutes.

There are extremely effective substances for the treatment of gum swelling:

  • Water, salt and ginger:
    make a kind of ointment with these ingredients and apply to the gums twice a day.
  • Castor oil and camphor: Mix oil and camphor and gently massage the gums with this paste in the morning and evening.
  • Rose oil and lemon: with this mixture perform mouthwashes several times a day.
  • Lemon and hot water: an old home remedy is gargling with lemon water to relieve symptoms.

Gently massage the gums. Do not perform movements that cause pain. The gums are massaged between and above or below the teeth. The massage removes food residues and promotes blood circulation; the increased blood supply helps the immune system fight the infection and renew the tissues.
If the gums hurt and bleed after these measures, a visit to the dentist is essential.

How can gum swelling be prevented?

Eating fresh vegetables and fruits, which contain many vitamins (especially vitamin C), reduces swelling of the gums.

Foods to avoid
Salty and crunchy foods that can cause gum irritation should be avoided. Equally sugared foods that stick to teeth and gums and can only be removed by vigorous brushing.

Oral hygiene
Regular cleaning of the teeth prevents infections and swelling of the gums.
Teeth must be brushed twice a day (or after each meal) and the gum line must also be brushed off carefully.
The use of dental floss after dinner helps prevent inflammation and the formation of dental plaque.

The use of essential oils can reduce dental plaque, very effective here is tea tree oil.
Gargle solutions can be helpful, for example, benzydamine hydrochloride (tantum verde) is an anti-inflammatory and disinfectant and prevents infections.

Wearing braces and dentures (full dentures, partial dentures, bridges and dental reconstructions) increases the likelihood of swelling of the gums. Together with the dentist, it must be considered whether the braces must be removed in order to be able to carry out a thorough cleaning daily and thus reduce the risk of infection.

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