The loss of vaginal bleeding that is not caused by menstruation may indicate a serious disease but is sometimes harmless.


What are the causes of vaginal blood loss?

Maternal Hormones : In newborns , blood loss can be caused by the mother’s hormones . 
This only occurs in newborns because the mother’s hormones can stimulate the child’s uterine mucosa during pregnancy. 
A few weeks after birth, the hormones are eliminated and no further bleeding occurs.

Foreign body : Small girls sometimes put small toys inside the vagina (for fun or as an attempt to explore their own body) and do not remove them. 
This can cause injury and bleeding. 
In women, the most common foreign body is a forgotten internal absorbent.


Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) : the symptoms of sexually transmitted diseases are several, for example:

1. Loss of blood after the menstrual cycle; 
2. Vaginal discharge of mucus; 
3. Swelling, ulcers, rash or a lump that appears around the vulva, vagina or anus; 
4. Pain during intercourse ; 
5. Pain when urinating .

The most common infections that cause bleeding from the vagina are:

Polyp in the cervix
A polyp is an abnormal formation of the uterine epithelium connected with a pedicle. 
Polyps are small formations that can develop in the cervix or inside the uterine cavity. 
The doctor usually sees you during the appointment. 
Polyps are removed in the hospital and are usually not cancerous.

Some cancers like cancer of the cervix can cause bleeding. Often there are other symptoms, for example, pain during intercourse.

Vaginal bleeding during the menstrual cycle

For a few days during the month there is a loss of blood through the vagina. 
The amount of loss can vary from one menstrual cycle to  another, and it also changes from woman to woman. 
Some women have little loss of dark color, others have more abundant losses of bright red color. 
Sometimes blood clots come out, especially if the losses are considerable. 
A normal amount of bleeding from a cycle is between 20 and 60 ml. 
Menstruation can last up to eight days, but the average is five days. 
The losses are more abundant in the first two days. 
Pain in the lower abdomen is quite frequent, but does not indicate a serious illness.

Menstruation abundant
This is a frequent phenomenon. 
It is difficult to accurately measure blood loss; menstrual periods are generally considered if the blood loss exceeds 80 ml per cycle. 
Menses are considered abundant if:

  • It is necessary to change the absorbent every two hours or less;
  • If the blood flow continues for more than 7 days;
  • If there are blood clots;
  • If they affect normal daily life.


Causes of Bleeding in Pregnancy

First trimester of pregnancy
Mild bleeding in the first trimester is not always a problem. 
It can be caused by:

  • Sexual intercourse,
  • An infection ,
  • Normal losses by implantation of the embryo in the uterus,
  • Hormonal changes.

The serious causes of bleeding in the first trimester are:

  • miscarriage , almost all women who have an abortion experience bleeding before a miscarriage;
  • An ectopic pregnancy, which can cause bleeding and cramping;
  • A molar pregnancy, in which a fertilized but not vital egg is implanted in the uterus. The embryo does not develop and therefore pregnancy can not be completed.


Third trimester of pregnancy
Changes in the cervix can cause bleeding, especially after intercourse.

Loss of mucus plug
When the mucus plug in the cervix comes out during pregnancy, it is a sign that the cervix is ​​ready for delivery. 
The tampon is eliminated along with small traces of blood. 
Bleeding is caused by rupture of the most fragile capillaries of the uterine cervix. 
These clear losses can occur about two days before the onset of contractions or during delivery.

Placental abruption or placental abruption – a rather serious complication of pregnancy in which the placenta is withdrawn partly or entirely from the wall of the uterus. 
The detachment of the placenta usually causes:

Placental abruption may also occur without symptoms and without loss of blood.


Placenta (or placenta previa ) – when the placenta is located in the lower part of the uterus, near or above the part that covers the cervix. 
Bleeding from the placenta previa can be very abundant and can be dangerous for the mother and the child. 
The doctor usually recommends a cesarean section .

Vasa praevia (or previous) – is a complication of pregnancy in which the umbilical or placental blood vessels pass through the membranes that cover the cervix. 
Usually the blood vessels are contained within the umbilical cord and placenta. 
When the pouch bursts, these vessels can tear and cause bleeding. 
The child may lose a dangerous amount of blood and the consequence may even be death. 
Vasa praevia are very difficult to diagnose before delivery, but in some cases can be identified before birth with  color Doppler ultrasonography  to monitor blood flow through the opening of the uterus (opening of the uterus above the cervix) .
In case of vasa praevia  , emergency cesarean delivery is indicated .


Bleeding after childbirth

The bleeding postpartum light is called lochia and is normal. 
These are fragments of the endometrial mucosa (decidua). 
The hemorrhage is bright red with clots in the first days, then changes color over time and becomes pink, yellow and at the end white. 
The amount reduces and disappears within three weeks. Some women notice these losses only for 2 weeks.

Other causes of blood loss

Bleeding during ovulation
During the period of ovulation it is possible to observe a slight bleeding or loss of mucus with traces of blood. 
The cause is the decrease in estrogen levels in the blood before ovulation peak. 
Blood is usually due to hormonal fluctuations.

The bleeding after sexual intercourse can occur because the cervix (cervix) is inflamed and sore. 
For this reason, the possibility of bleeding after intercourse increases. 
Among the reasons that cause blood loss through the vagina most often during sexual intercourse are:

  • Infections, such as chlamydia,
  • The hormonal changes,
  • Vaginal dryness,
  • Injuries to the cervix.

Loss of dark blood

Brown bleeding or spotting may occur due to:

  • Stress : may cause irregular menstruation.
  • Anorexia , bulimia and obesity – can cause weakness and dark blood loss.
  • Contraceptive pill or vaginal ring – sometimes bleeding may occur in the first few months after the woman takes the contraceptive pill. 
    Usually for after a few months.
  • Incorrect introduction of intrauterine device (IUD).
  • Organic diseases such as ovarian cyst , polyps and endometriosis .

Blood loss

Diagnosis of blood loss

When the patient goes to the doctor, she should explain:

  • The type of blood loss,
  • The amount of the flow,
  • If there is blood clot formation,
  • If it smells bad.

The doctor needs to know if the patient is taking:

  • Medicines,
  • Herbal products.

Sometimes natural products can interact with prescription drugs, such as the birth control pill , and the patient may have an infection.

The doctor asks about sex information to find out if the patient may have an infection
It is important to know the type of contraceptive used; for example, the condom protects against sexually transmitted diseases.

Gynecological consultation
The gynecologist can examine the vagina by inserting two fingers into it. 
This allows you to understand the size of the uterus and whether it is sore.

The doctor may use an instrument called a speculum to see inside the vagina. 
With the speculum it is possible to observe the vaginal discharge and to collect a sample with a swab. 
The collected tissue is sent to the analysis laboratory to find out if the cause of the loss is an infection.

The gynecologist may prescribe more exams or make an ultrasound .


Bleeding through the anus

Rectal bleeding is defined as hematochezia and refers to red bleeding from the anus, often along with stool.

If bleeding is not associated with defecation, rhetoric is defined . 
It usually develops quickly and is caused by an intestinal disorder.

Although blood loss may come from the rectum, in some cases it may occur in other parts of the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract (particularly the colon). 
The bleeding can be observed in the form of feces:

  • Color of tar or black (mane)
  • Live Red,
  • Blood on toilet paper.

The consequences of blood loss can be symptoms such as:

  • Weakness ,
  • Dizziness ,
  • Nausea ,
  • Fainting spells ,
  • Low blood pressure or hypotension in an upright position (a drop in blood pressure when sitting or lying down in a standing position).


Causes of bleeding through the anus

Anal fissures : Anal fissures are a frequent cause of rectal hemorrhage. 
The walls of the anal canal rupture because of constipation , causing blood loss, but also severe pain during stool passage.

Hemorrhoids : Hemorrhoids are dilated blood vessels or veins inside the anal canal. 
The veins are swollen for several reasons, including:

  • Poor nutrition, for example with an excess of nuts (nuts, almonds, etc.) or an excess of cereals.
  • Anus efforts during the passage of hard or dry stools , which causes anal discomfort or bleeding.

However, bleeding from hemorrhoids is usually mild and does not cause:

Fistula : An anal fistula is an abnormal canal that extends from the rectum to the skin around the anus. 
Usually it passes a yellowish fluid (pus), but sometimes also it can bleed. 
Generally, the fistula is related to chronic inflammation of the intestinal tract and causes:

  • Pain,
  • Blood in the stool .

Diverticulosis :  Diverticulosis is a disease in which pockets or pouches are called diverticula (protrusions of the intestinal mucosa) in the colon. 
The development of these protrusions is mainly due to the weakness of the colon wall which results in:

  • Mild rectal bleeding,
  • Stool with bad smell.

Proctite and colitis , these diseases can occur due to inflammation or ulceration of the colon, rectum or both. 
When inflammation is limited to the rectum, the disease is called proctitis ; if it spreads to the colon, is called colitis.

Symptoms include:

  • Cramps,
  • Diarrhea ,
  • Rectal urgency (feeling of having to evacuate immediately),
  • Loss of blood.

Polyps and cancer : 
The polyps are benign tumors of the large intestine that reach large sizes and can cause bleeding. 
Some types of polyps develop  colon cancer that causes:

  • Live red bleeding,
  • Abdominal or anal pain ,
  • Diarrhea or constipation.

Rectal Prolapse : This disorder occurs due to weakening of the rectum supporting tissues that occurs in the elderly. 
The person may feel a strange lump under the buttock when wiping. 
Among the symptoms of rectal prolapse is also rectal bleeding.

Diagnosis of bleeding through the anus

In case of bleeding from the anus, the individual should seek proctologist because it can indicate the presence of serious diseases. 
First, the doctor examines the anal area for hemorrhoids or fissures. 
If this test can not find the source of the bleeding, colonoscopy is indicated.


What are the treatments for bleeding through the anus?

The treatments depend on the specific cause of the bleeding. 
They can range from simple medicines and home remedies to surgery.

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