If you think you have contracted typhoid fever, the doctor may, based on the patient’s physical symptoms, require a stool culture (from the second week) and / or blood tests to specifically identify the Salmonella Typhi bacteria.
The doctor asks the patient for information about his medical history and the trips made in order to evaluate the exposure to the bacteria.

Medical treatment for typhoid fever

Treatment with antibiotics is the only effective for typhoid fever.

Antibiotics that are usually prescribed

    1. Ciprofloxacin In the United States, doctors usually prescribe this medication for adults. In the case of women, if they are not pregnant.
    2. Ceftriaxone This antibiotic in the form of an injection is an alternative for pregnant women and for children who can not take ciprofloxacin.

These medications can cause side effects and their long-term use can lead to the emergence of strains of bacteria resistant to antibiotics.

Problems with antibiotic resistance
Traditionally, the drug chosen was chloramphenicol. However, nowadays doctors do not usually prescribe it due to its side effects: high rate of worsening of health after a period of improvement (relapse) and generalized bacterial resistance.
In fact, the existence of bacteria resistant to antibiotics is a growing problem in the treatment of fever, especially in developing countries. In recent years, S. Typhi has been shown to be resistant to trimethoprim / sulfamethoxazole and ampicillin.

Natural remedies for typhoid fever

Other treatments aimed at the management of symptoms are:

  • Drink liquids in abundance. This helps prevent dehydration, which is a consequence of prolonged fever and diarrhea. In case of severe dehydration, you may need to receive fluids intravenously (through a vein in the arm).
  • Eat a healthy and light diet. 

According to natural medicine, if the patient has no contraindications (pregnancy, diabetes, advanced cancer, advanced tuberculosis and heart disease) he can fast to facilitate the elimination of toxins.
When the patient is better, the diet has to be light and natural, with raw fruits and vegetables, legumes and nuts.
Avoid animal protein, sweets, salt and processed products found in the supermarket

Prognosis of typhoid fever

The prospects are good if the antibiotic treatment is followed, the patient can be discharged from the hospital when the disease stabilizes.
At home, good general hygiene (as usual) should be maintained, since bacteria can continue to appear in the stool for several weeks.
If the patient works with food, they should not go to work until at least two stool samples certify the disappearance of the infection.

Relapse
Approximately one out of every 20 people who follow treatment for typhoid fever relapses.
Symptoms usually return about a week after the end of antibiotic treatment.

Long-term carriers
When symptoms disappear, another stool test should be performed to check for the presence of Salmonella Typhi bacteria in the stool. If they appear, it means that the patient is still a carrier of typhoid fever.

Vaccine for typhoid fever

There are two vaccines to prevent typhoid fever.

One of them is the vaccine with inactivated (dead) bacteria that is made with an injection and the other is the vaccine with a live and attenuated (weakened) bacterium, which is taken orally (by mouth).

It is recommended to vaccinate against typhoid fever at:

    1. Travelers who go to parts of the world where typhoid fever is common (note: the typhoid vaccine is effective in 50/75% of cases and lasts for around 3 years, it is not  a medicine that allows us to be unconcerned of what we eat or drink).
    2. People in direct contact with a carrier of typhoid fever.
    3. Laboratory workers who work with Salmonella Typhi bacteria.

Vaccine for inactivated typhoid fever ViCPS (injection)
It should not be given to children under two years of age.
One dose is sufficient to obtain protection. It should be administered at least two weeks before the trip to allow time for the vaccine to be effective.
A booster dose is required every two years for people at risk.
Side effects include headache, malaise, and fever.

Vaccine for typhoid fever  live attenuated (oral)
It should not be administered to children under six years of age.
Four doses are required for protection, administered on alternate days.
The last dose should be administered at least one week before the trip to allow time for the vaccine to be effective.
Every five years, a dose of memory is needed for people at risk.
The vaccine can be given at the same time as other vaccines.

Among the side effects of the oral vaccine are:

  • Gastrointestinal disorders such as abdominal pain, vomiting or diarrhea.
  • Hives or rash

Prevention of typhoid fever

It is recommended to follow these guidelines if traveling to high risk areas:

  1. Handwashing. Frequent hand washing is the best way to control the infection. Wash your hands thoroughly with hot water and soap, especially before eating or preparing food and after using the bathroom. Take an alcohol-based disinfectant with you when there is no water available.
  2. Avoid drinking untreated water. Polluted drinking water is a problem, especially in areas where typhoid fever is endemic (due to epidemics). For this reason, it is necessary to drink only bottled water or bottled or canned soft drinks. Order drinks without ice. Use bottled water to brush your teeth.
  3. Avoid unpeeled fruits and vegetables, especially lettuce. 
  4. Consume cooked foods. Avoid food that is served at room temperature. Steam hot foods are the best. It is better to avoid food from street vendors.

Paratyphoid fever

Paratyphoid fever is an infectious disease such as acute typhoid fever caused by the microorganism Salmonella Paratyphi.
The symptoms of paratyphoid fever are those of intestinal inflammation: fever, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain and hypotension.
The prognosis of paratyphoid fever is 10/14 days, similar to typhoid fever, but less severe and of shorter brevity.
Complications of paratyphoid fever occur in exceptional cases.
The diagnosis is made through a stool analysis.
In general, no treatment is required, but in severe cases the doctor may prescribe antibiotics: ampicillin, amoxicillin, quinolones and cephalosporins.