The 5 most alarming diseases of 2016 and their symptoms

2016 passed, but some diseases present in it remained among our population. In fact, the year had several changes in several factors, such as political and economic, and, in relation to health, many diseases developed more than they should have, causing outbreaks and increasing the concern of specialists in the area.

Check out in this article which were the diseases that attracted the most attention in the last year.

1. H1N1 flu

After the pandemic that occurred in 2009 and 2010 worldwide, Brazil suffered from a new outbreak of the disease in the last year. Contrary to what many people think, the H1N1 flu is not only common in the cold months, so much so that, in April, cases of the disease were already responsible for half of all cases of influenza in the country.

Among the symptoms presented are fever above 38ºC, body aches, sore throats and headaches, dry cough , fatigue and chills. In addition to them, some people also have diarrhea and vomiting. At the sign of any of these symptoms, the ideal is to consult with a specialist doctor – general practitioner, infectious disease specialist or pulmonologist.

The H1N1 flu can be treated using medications like Tamiflu or Relenza . Regarding prevention, there is the possibility of vaccination, in addition to paying attention to hygiene care, such as:

  • Do not share objects for personal use;
  • Wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water;
  • Sterilize your hands with alcohol gel;
  • Maintain healthy habits;
  • Wear protective masks, if necessary.

2. Syphilis

Some Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs), towards the end of the year, began to draw attention due to the increase in the number of cases not only in Brazil, but worldwide. According to a report by the Center for Disease Control (CDC), there has been a significant increase in cases of syphilis , gonorrhea and chlamydia in the USA. However, here in our country the main focus was on syphilis.

Caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum , the disease is a silent evil, since the pathogen can remain in the body of the infected person for decades and then manifest itself. After manifestation, syphilis can have three stages, where each has different symptoms:

Primary syphilis

After 3 weeks of contagion, small reddish lesions appear on Organs genitals and disappear after 4 or 5 weeks.

Secondary syphilis

After 6 or 8 weeks of the disappearance of the primary lesions, new lesions appear, only this time spread over the skin and in Organs internal organs of the body.

Tertiary syphilis

When syphilis is not spontaneously cured after the second stage, symptoms such as major injuries, constant headache , nausea and vomiting, seizures and strokes can appear.

Once diagnosed, the disease can be treated with the use of some medications, such as Benzetacil , Doxycycline and Erythromycin . Regarding prevention, the most appropriate way is to use a condom during sexual intercourse.

Diseases caused by the Aedes aegypti mosquito

Coming from Africa, the mosquito belonging to the Culicidae family is currently present worldwide, mainly in tropical and subtropical areas. Known to be the transmitter of the dengue virus , it was discovered that the mosquito can transmit two other viruses: zika and chikungunya .

The reasons that lead him to be able to transmit so many viruses – which, in addition to those already mentioned, can also be yellow fever – is the fact that Aedes aegypti specialized in sharing space with man. In fact, for him to survive, human agglomeration is necessary.

The mosquito prefers clean, still water to proliferate, but the lack of it does not prevent it from laying its eggs. Any object or place serves as a breeding ground, including dried ones – eggs are inert for up to a year and, on first contact with water, they develop quickly, usually over a period of seven days. Therefore, to prevent the breeding grounds for mosquito breeding from occurring, eliminate locations that contain standing water and use insecticides so that the mosquito does not bite you.

Below, understand about the three main diseases that the mosquito can transmit and that need a certain care so that they are not transmitted more and more.

3. Dengue

Considered as one of the main public health problems in the world, dengue is a viral and febrile disease transmitted by the female mosquito of Aedes agypti through its bite. However, there are also reports of vertical transmission (that is, from mother to baby) and blood transfusion.

Among the symptoms, the disease can be asymptomatic, as well as being life-threatening. One of the first symptoms, when present, is a high fever (around 39ºC to 40ºC), sudden and lasting from two to seven days. In addition to it, headache , body pain, weakness and pain behind the eyes can also appear, which ends up “helping” for a wrong diagnosis, since often the symptoms of dengue are confused with those of the flu .

As the disease does not have a specific treatment, what is usually treated are the symptoms it presents. The main advice that doctors give is to always stay hydrated. For pain, drugs such as Paracetamol are prescribed and those based on acetylsalicylic acid should not be used.

Dengue cases that are not treated properly can lead to complications, such as severe dehydration, digestive hemorrhage, liver failure and even death.

4. Zika

Also transmitted by Aedes agypti , the Zika virus was first identified in monkeys in 1947. In humans, it was identified a few years later, specifically in 1952, in Uganda and the United Republic of Tanzania. Zika outbreaks have been reported in countries in Africa, the Americas, Asia and also in the Pacific.

Its main symptoms are mild fever, rashes, conjunctivitis , body aches, malaise and headache. Everyone’s duration is also two to seven days – just like dengue fever – and the treatment is based on drinking plenty of fluids and getting plenty of rest. To control pain and fever, the use of antipyretics and analgesics , such as Paracetamol and Ibuprofen, is recommended .

When the virus infection occurs during pregnancy, serious problems can develop in the fetus, causing the child to be born with microcephaly (that is, his head is much smaller when compared to those of other children of the same sex and age) or with Guillain-Barré Syndrome.

5. Chikungunya

A virus most recently discovered, chikungunya was first detected in 2013 in the Caribbean islands. It is believed that it spread to other parts of the globe due to travelers who were eventually infected. There is still no form of treatment and prevention for the disease, so the only way to prevent it is to avoid mosquito bites.

Its symptoms are similar to those of dengue and zika (fever and body aches) and last between three and seven days. To treat them, it is recommended to rest, drink fluids, use medications such as Paracetamol and avoid mosquito bites in the first week that the disease manifests.

Attention! 

NEVER self-medicate or stop using a medication without first consulting a doctor. Only he will be able to tell which medication, dosage and duration of treatment is the most suitable for his specific case. The information contained on this site is only intended to inform, not in any way intended to replace the guidance of a specialist or serve as a recommendation for any type of treatment. Always follow the instructions on the package insert and, if symptoms persist, seek medical or pharmaceutical advice.


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