Sunburn is a disorder that causes erythema and swelling on the skin due to excessive sun exposure, especially ultraviolet (UV) rays.
The burn can also show up as a result of contact with other UV light sources, such as solariums or tanning lamps.
At the cellular level, the burn causes microscopic changes in the skin.
Long-term effects of repeated sunburns include:
- an increased risk of huat cancer, especially melanoma (the most dangerous type of skin cancer).
If you go on vacation, you have to pay special attention to the face and scalp of toddlers and adults with thinning hair, because fast:
- a sunburn or
- a slight burn may occur.
The head is the part of the body most exposed to the sun’s rays and is less protected. So it is easily possible to get a sunburn during a normal walk.
The skin around the nose area is very delicate and can molt quickly. Therefore, it is recommended to use a sunscreen, even if you are not on the beach.
During pregnancy, it is easy to get sunburned on your stomach, as the skin is more sensitive there, even if it is well protected with sunscreen.
The lips can burn as well as the rest of the body, because they have a very delicate skin and contain little melanin.
Another difference with the skin is the lack of sebaceous glands that moisturize it. So they have a greater chance of drying out and cracking.
After a holiday at the sea, white spots may appear on the skin.
This loss of skin color can:
- a normal pigment reduction after sun tanning,
- be caused by a fungus called Malassezia furfur, which causes an infection called pityriasis versicolor. During sun exposure, the fungus inhibits pigmentation and can also lead to scaling.
Blisters due to sunburn
If blisters form, then the burn is already severe.
- The upper bladder skin should not be removed. It then hurts less and the risk of infection is lower if no air comes into contact with the sensitive nerve endings.
- Do not pierce the blisters. Blisters are a self-healing mechanism of the skin, they form a protected environment for the formation of new skin.
Signs and symptoms of sunburn
The first signs of sunburn may be absent for a few hours.
The full effect on the skin can occur only after about 24 hours.
Among the possible symptoms are:
1. red skin that hurts and is overheated;
2. blisters that form after a few hours or days;
6. skin rash;
7. itching on the skin;
8. facial swelling or swelling in the sunburned areas (this is a symptom of inflammation);
9. Sunburn on the legs (more common in surfers) can cause:
- Schwierigkeiten beim Beugen der Knie;
10. Peel the skin on the burned areas a few days after sunburn.
When the skin begins to redden and hurt, the damage is done.
The pain worsens during 6 to 48 hours after sun exposure.
In case of a severe burn, blisters and blisters may form on the skin.
Caution with pharmaceuticals Some pharmaceuticals:
- increase sun sensitivity,
- cause dermatitis similar to sunburn.
Rashes can be caused by:
- antifungal agents,
- contraceptive pill,
- diabetes medications,
- some anti-cellulite creams.
Always consult your doctor about potential side effects of medicines you are taking.
What to do in case of burns?
The treatment of sunburn is aimed at:
To relieve the pain of burns, the doctor may prescribe:
- analgesics (aspirin),
- Anti-inflammatories (for example, ibuprofen).
Relieve with hydrocortisone: relieve irritation and inflammation with locally effective lotion, oil or spray containing 1% hydrocortisone, for example, Hydrocortisone Hexal 1.0%.
Below are some home remedies listed
The first thing to do is cool the skin with fresh water for 20 minutes. The water should not be too cold, otherwise it could damage the skin.
Place a cool poultice on the affected area to cool the skin.
These old home remedies are useful both in case of sunburn and in case of burns with boiling water.
Drink plenty of fluids when you are dehydrated.
Drinking alcohol must be avoided because it promotes dehydration.
Avoid sun exposure.
If any of the following signs of sunburn are observed, a doctor should be called:
- fever of at least 39 degrees;
- severe pain;
- blisters from sunburn, covering at least 20% of the body;
- Signs of dehydration:
How to treat sunburn? Natural remedies
These remedies give relief, but do not shorten healing times.
It is important to rest in the shade; Inflammation and redness are defense mechanisms of the body, which is trying to repair the skin damage.
Aloe vera syrup or gel of aloe vera
can relieve pain and redness in mild sunburn.
Aloe vera causes a narrowing of the blood vessels.
- Carve the thick leaves of the aloe plant.
- Apply the gel directly to the combustion.
- Repeat 5 to 6 times a day for several days.
If you do not have an aloe plant in the house, you can buy the aloe gel in the pharmacy, cool it in the fridge and then apply it to the skin.
Apply these foods to mild burns:
Some ingredients from the kitchen can help with sunburn, you can put cool compresses on the burned skin.
Oatmeal. Wrap dry oatmeal in gauze or canvas.
Immerse in a tub of cold water. Remove the cloth and apply the oatmeal to the skin.
Use every 2-4 hours.
Low-fat milk. Mix 1 cup of low-fat milk with 4 cups of water, then add a few ice cubes.
Apply 15-20 minutes to the areas with sunburn; wash off and repeat every 2-4 hours.
Corn starch. Take a sufficient amount of water to make a corn porridge.
Apply directly to sunburned skin.
Lettuce. Boil the leaves of lettuce in water.
Drain and place the liquid in the refrigerator for several hours. Soak cotton balls in the liquid, then lightly squeeze on the irritated areas of the skin.
Yogurt. Apply yogurt to all sunburned areas. Then rinse under a cold shower, lightly massage dry skin.
Tea bags. If the eyelids are burned, place tea bags soaked in cold water to relieve swelling and pain.
Tea contains tannic acid, which seems to relieve the pain of burns.
Cream for mild sunburn
Compresses are beneficial and provide temporary relief, but they can dry out the skin if a moisturizing product is not applied immediately afterwards.
You can apply a cream or lotion (for example, skin protection from Eucerin).
- Recommendation: Store moisturizer in the refrigerator for better relief.
- Apply peppermint oil to sunburned skin as long as the blisters persist.
Add brewed mint tea to a lukewarm bath to relieve the sunburn.
- Apply pure or diluted apple cider vinegar with a cotton wool belly to relieve sunburn.
- An effective remedy is olive oil, which stimulates the healing process. However, it should not be applied immediately after the onset of sunburn to avoid exacerbation.
- Apply Epson salt or baking soda dissolved in water to the affected skin with a clean cloth.
- Bathe the sunburned skin in fresh chamomile or calendula tea.
Relief of burn pain. The potato’s starchy compounds help relieve the pain of sunburn.
Treatment in case of burn:
- cut a raw potato into slices,
- so that brush the most painful part of the sunburn.
For a more intensive treatment:
- grate the raw, cold potato,
- place on the skin.
Nutrition and diet for sunburn
Eating the right foods also helps in relieving sunburns.
- Drinking water is a good way to counteract the dehydrating effects of burning.
- Also, the water contained in fruits can be useful.
For example, a large slice of a watermelon contains comparatively more than 1 cup of water. It is also a good source of lycopene, which protects against cancer.
- Eat light foods, because a balanced diet helps the skin to regenerate.
Sunburn in children, what to do?
It is important not to apply oil to a fresh sunburn, because this makes the situation worse.
If the child was clothed while getting sunburned, and the clothes are dry and against the skin, they must not be removed.
When does the sunburn pass? Prognosis
The healing time of a sunburn depends:
- the amount of time spent in the sun,
- the degree of combustion,
- the patient’s skin type.
Minor burns last only one to two days. You can go out of the house if the clothes sufficiently cover the body.
Considerable sunburns (with blistering) that occur easily in tropical areas can also last for 10 days.
Here is some advice to safely protect your skin when outdoors.
Sunbeams are strongest between 10 a.m. and 16 p.m.
If you can’t be in the house during this time, you should at least stay in the shade.
Once outdoors, wear clothing that protects against exposure to the sun, for example:
1. wear a hat with a brim that protects the face, head, neck and ears;
2. long-sleeved shirt and linen trousers;
3. Sunglasses with UV protection that protects the eyes.
Use sunscreen. Protect the skin exposed to the sun with sunscreen with a high light factor.
This means using sunscreens against UVB rays as well as UVA rays.
The sun protection factor should be at least 30.
Follow these tips for using sunscreen:
1. Apply the cream about 30 minutes before going out.
2. Use the sunscreen even on cloudy days, because the UV rays penetrate the cloud cover.
3. Reapply cream every two hours – or more often if you sweat or go swimming.