Sore throat

Sore throat is one of the most common ailments in the world. They can be a symptom of other conditions, such as the common cold and influenza.

Sore throat is an inflammation of the larynx, throat and pharyngeal tonsils, usually bilateral, but it can also occur unilaterally (only on the right side or only on the left side).


What are the causes?

Tonsillitis and pharyngitis Inflammation of the pharyngeal tonsils causes tonsillitis, while an inflamed throat leads to pharyngitis
These conditions are the most common causes of sore throat when swallowing.
The cause may be a bacterial or viral infection.
There is a direct infection, the virus in the air is transmitted by droplet infection from an infected person.

Mononucleosis is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus.
In addition to the sore throat, the person also suffers from fever.
About 95% of the world’s population has been infected with EBV.
Transmission of this virus occurs via saliva, especially through kisses.

Cancer and neoplasms
Tumors in the oral cavity or throat can cause persistent sore throats. However, the tumor is not always malignant.
The cancer usually originates in the glottis of the larynx, but in the end metastases form (for example, on the lymph nodes) and it spreads to other organs.

such as chlamydia and gonorrhea can be responsible for a sore throat.
In this case, the duration can be a month and even more.

Signs and symptoms that occur along with a sore throat

– Swollen and bright red throat – Dark red spots in the back of the throat – High fever – Enlarged lymph nodes on the neck, painful to the touch – Purulent tonsillitis – White plaques or grey deposits on the tonsils – Headache – Joint pain – Nausea – Difficulty swallowing, yawning and coughing

– Loss
of appetite
– Rashes (scarlet fever)
– Runny
nose – Neck pain – Muscle pain – Joint stiffness
– Earache

– Blocked ears

Swollen pharyngeal tonsils without a sore throat

A person may have swollen tonsils due to sore throat, allergies, sinusitis, etc.
There are also other factors that can cause tonsillitis.
A viral or bacterial infection after contact with an infected person can lead to tonsil swelling.
Often young children suffer from chronic tonsillitis due to colds or influenza.
Adults and adolescents often have swollen tonsils due to bacterial infections.
In rare cases, bacteria that cause diseases such as scarlet fever and diphtheria can cause tonsil swelling.
Food allergies can provoke swollen tonsils.

Swollen palate suppository and sore throat

Sore throat is usually accompanied by swelling of the palate suppository.

Symptoms of sore throat and inflamed palate
suppository 1. You can’t swallow because of
pain 2. White plaque formation and pus in the throat
3. Nausea
4. Headache
5. Swollen and inflamed pharyngeal tonsils
6. High fever
7. Hoarseness or deep voice
8. Frequent coughing

What are the causes of earache and irritated throat?

Sore throat exists with inflammation of the tonsils, larynx and throat.
For the most part, sore throats are caused by microbial infections that can be treated with some over-the-counter medications.

Earache is the result of infection of the outer, middle or inner (otitis media) ear.

Ears and neck are connected, so the disease of one part can also affect the other.
Sore throat is mainly responsible for earache.
The cause of ear and throat pain on only one side can be inflammation of one side of the neck.
The discomfort is felt only on this side, even if the other side is completely normal.
Below are some causes of sore throat that also cause earache.

⇒ Tonsillitis
⇒ Ear infection ⇒ Allergic rhinitis ⇒ sinusitis

⇒ infection of the palate suppository ⇒ cough ⇒ cold and influenza ⇒ Dental infection ⇒ Allergy ⇒ Overuse of the vocal cords (for example, screaming)
⇒ Smoking ⇒ Alcohol abuse

⇒ eating very hot or very cold foods

Sore throat in the morning

Morning sore throat is a very common problem. In most cases, it is not caused by a real illness such as a cold or influenza.
It is usually caused by the environment, by dry air in the home or at work or by cigarette smoke (including electronic cigarettes).
In addition, some pathologies such as sleep apnea or reflux of stomach acid can cause a sore throat after waking up in the morning.

Sore throat in the evening and at night

Sore throat that occurs only in the evening or during the night can be a problem of the environment. There may be an allergy to pollen, animal dander or airborne mold.
Also, the ambient air that is inhaled may be too dry, especially in a heated apartment.
External irritants, including cigarette smoke, can be harmful.
Sore throat may be caused by gastroesophageal reflux, which causes the acid accumulated in the stomach to flow back along the esophagus.
This phenomenon can occur especially violently after eating, for example, after dinner.
If a sore throat occurs in the evening after screaming, the cause is probably muscular overexertion.

What to do? Therapy and medication

As a rule, the doctor prescribes an antibiotic for oral use, such as:

Penicillin. This medication can be given as an injection, for example if the sore throat is very severe and the child has discomfort or vomits when swallowing.

Amoxicillin (for example, Augmentin®). This drug comes from the same group as the penicillin, it is preferred in children because it has a better taste and is also available as a chewable tablet.

With a penicillin allergy, the doctor may prescribe:

  • a cephalosporin,
  • Clarithromycin (for example, Biaxin),
  • azithromycin (for example, Zithromax),
  • Clindamycin.

These antibiotics reduce the duration and intensity of symptoms. They also reduce the risk of complications and the possibility of disease transmission.

Anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving medications The doctor may recommend over-the-counter medications
to relieve the sore throat and lower the fever, for example:

  1. Ibuprofen (Dolormin, Nurofen),
  2. Ketoprofen (alrheumun),
  3. Acetaminophen (paracetamol, ben-u-ron, etc.).

Children must not be given aspirin as it can cause Reye’s syndrome, which is very dangerous.

If the sore throat does not pass, corticosteroids must be given (for example, Betnesol), which are very strong anti-inflammatories.

Spray and mouthwash You can use spray and mouthwash
, which bring rapid relief. However, these are only indicated for adults.
Anti-inflammatory sprays and mouthwash that relieve the sore throat include:

  1. Flurbiprofen (Tantum verde gargle solution® and Dobendan),
  2. Benzydamine (Tantum verde).

Natural remedies for sore throat

There are many natural methods to relieve the symptoms of a sore throat without taking medicines.

Home remedies are:

Hot and cold drinks Hot drinks
are still among the best remedies to reduce pain and inflammation associated with a sore throat.
For example, you can drink tea with ginger, herbal tea, chicken broth, etc.

In summer, you can drink a granita (finely crushed water ice with fruit syrup), eat an ice cream or suck an ice cube to temporarily experience relief. But that doesn’t help reduce inflammation.

Lemon and honey Lemon has natural antibacterial properties and honey
is an excellent remedy for tightness in the throat.
Mix 2 teaspoons of honey with lukewarm water and add 1-2 drops of lemon juice. Drink the mixture 1 to 2 times a day.

Apple cider vinegar
Apple cider vinegar helps treat an infection.
A mixture of lemon, honey, apple cider vinegar and cayenne pepper is one of the most effective remedies for a sore throat.

  • prepare 1 tbsp apple cider vinegar, 1 tbsp honey, 1 tsp cayenne pepper and 1 tbsp lemon juice;
  • put everything in a glass of hot water;
  • Stir well and drink three times a day.

Garlic Garlic
is a natural antibiotic and antiseptic that helps treat infections.
You can mix it with meals or soak 2-3 cloves in honey and eat it an hour later.

I recommend preparing dinner in the following way:

  • 2 cloves of garlic chop;
  • Chop 1 piece of ginger (about 20 g);
  • prepare a portion of rice with vegetables;
  • drink hot water or ginger tea with honey.

Ginger tea

  • Bring water to a boil for a cup in a saucepan.
  • When the water boils, turn off the stove, remove the lid from the pot and wait 10 minutes. I advise against adding ginger and lemon to the boiling water, because at this temperature the nutrients degenerate and the food’s own properties are lost.
  • Add a piece of ginger (about 20-30 g).
  • You can also add half a lemon without peel to the pot.
  • Close the pot with the lid and wait 20 minutes.
  • If the water is lukewarm, it can be filtered.
  • Drink once or twice a day.

Licorice licorice
is another remedy from grandmother’s time for sore throat, which leads to rapid relief.
It is an ingredient used in many types of tea.

Holy basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum) is a type of herb with natural healing properties.
You can boil a few leaves of basil to make a gargle solution.

Herbal teas
Herbal teas are very effective against sore throat.
They can be prepared from the following ingredients:
1. Red clover
2. Barberry
3. Chamomile
4. Bach flowers
5. Red elm
6. Eucalyptus
7. Liquorice
8. Cayenne pepper
9. Sage

Gargling with salt water
A solution of water and salt helps with a sore throat and also clears the nose.


☞ Fill a vessel with a liter of lukewarm water.
☞ Add 3 tablespoons of baking soda.
☞ Stir until the mixture is dissolved, then gargle with the solution several times a day.
☞ Store the container in the refrigerator and close with a lid. Warm up before use and mix again.

Is hot or cold better?

This is a question that patients often ask, because they don’t really know what to do.
In an acute phase, cold food can help against the inflammation, but it does not serve to heal, but only temporarily helps to relieve the pain.
Hot food increases cell metabolism and thus promotes healing. In fact, fever (raising body temperature) is a mechanism of the body to fight numerous diseases.

Remedies for sore throat for pregnant and lactating women

As a rule, a sore throat during pregnancy is the symptom of a viral infection or throat irritation.
The only medicine that is allowed to be taken is paracetamol. Therefore, a natural remedy would be better.
Tea with ginger is an effective remedy.
Add honey and the juice of half a lemon to a cup of hot tea and drink.
When making tea, add a piece of ginger and bring to the boil.
After that, add the juice of half a lemon and a tablespoon of honey.

For sore throat that does not pass, an excellent remedy is a gargle solution containing propolis, which has an antibacterial effect and strengthens the immune system.
It can be used preventively, especially if the patient has a recurring sore throat.

Homeopathic remedies

Homeopathy is a type of therapy that can be done on its own or in combination with pharmaceuticals.

Belladonna: the most widely used homeopathic drug for sore throat, dry mouth, burning and reddened pharyngeal tonsils.

Mercurius: is indicated when throat or nose is inflamed and for colds.

Phytolacca: this homeopathic remedy can be used to treat inflamed pharyngeal tonsils, laryngitis (laryngitis), croup, enlarged lymph nodes and other disorders.

How long do they last? Prognosis

Treatment with medications or natural cures should reduce symptoms in 2-3 days.
The pediatrician should be consulted if the toddler or infant does not feel better after 48 hours of antibiotic therapy.
When children take antibiotics, feel better and no longer have a fever, they can go back to school.
The child is no longer contagious about 24 hours after the start of therapy.

Healing times for sore throat are about 5-6 days, less than a week.

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