Rashes do not correspond to a specific diagnosis, but it is a generic term that indicates:

  • An inflammation of the skin,
  • The appearance of skin changes (texture, thickness, etc.).
  • A  change of color .

 

Types of skin eruptions

There are different types of skin rashes including:

  • Boils – superficial inflammation of hair follicles,
  • Papules – part of protruding skin (for example, caused by warts , tumors, etc.),
  • Macules – stain,
  • Pustules – an embolus skin lesion full of pus,
  • Ponfos  – a raised and red skin area, characteristic of urticaria,
  • Nodules – protruding and hard lesion with rounded shape,
  • Blisters – vesicle containing liquid,
  • Scales – dry and dead skin (typical of psoriasis)
  • Ulcers – a cutaneous wound that penetrates beyond the dermis; it is formed, for example, in the case of diabetic foot .

 

Non-infectious diseases that cause rashes

Seborrheic dermatitis:  a  seborrheic dermatitis is a rash that affects more often teenagers.

Causes red spots  and scaling that usually affect:

  • The scalp,
  • Head,
  • Eyebrows,
  • Face: around the nose and mouth,
  • Cheeks
  • The outside of the ear.

Among the natural remedies we can mention:

  • Creams made of Echinacea,
  • Sweet almond oil,
  • Dandelion.

Atopic dermatitis:  the  atopic dermatitis (or eczema ) is a common disease in children and causes:

  • red spot,
  • Itching ,
  • Skin rashes.

The affected areas are:

  • The inner part of the elbows,
  • Behind the knees ,
  • Cheeks
  • Ears,
  • Neck,
  • Arms,
  • Legs.

It can often be found in patients suffering from allergic rhinitis and  asthma.

Contact dermatitis:  the  contact dermatitis is a skin eruption (rash) caused by contact with a specific chemical substance to which the patient is allergic . 
Certain chemicals are irritating to the patient and are called allergens. 
The rash can cause blisters that may burst and can cause fluid leakage. 
Contact dermatitis affects the parts of the skin that are in direct contact with the irritant. 
Frequent examples of allergens are poison ivy and commonly used nickel-containing jewelry.

Stasis
dermatitis Stasis dermatitis is a dermatitis caused by the accumulation of fluid in the individual’s leg because of poor circulation in the veins.

Palmar
erythema Palmar erythema is a rash that occurs in the palm of the hand in the area closest to the wrist. 
It may be a consequence of liver cirrhosis , ie, liver fibrosis.

Psoriasis. This rash consists of a plaque that does not  transpire 
May occur in:

  • Scalp,
  • Elbow,
  • Knee,
  • Lower back,
  • Groin.

The psoriasis causes the formation of skin lesions and color peeling skin similar to silver.

eczema

Nummular eczema:  this dermatitis is usually characterized by the formation of red plaques in the shape of a coin. 
It occurs mostly in winter because it is caused by very dry skin .

Burn
burn is a skin injury and is usually caused by exposure to heat or hot substances. 
Some symptoms are:

Rosacea
The acne rosacea begins with redness in the following areas:

  • Cheeks
  • Nose,
  • Chin,
  • Head.

It occurs less frequently in the neck, scalp, chest or ears.

In the beginning, rosacea comes and goes. 
Over time, the redness spreads deeper and lasts longer. 
Visible blood vessels appear on the skin. If left untreated, pimples and red blisters form.

Pemphigus vulgaris in the throat

Pemphigus vulgaris
Pemphigus vulgaris is an autoimmune disease that causes the formation of rashes with blisters and wounds(erosion) on the skin and mucous membranes. 
The affected areas are:

Scalp, 
trunk, 
Other areas of the skin.

 

Folliculitis
The  folliculitis is an inflammation of one or more hair follicles. It can occur anywhere on the skin. 
The cause may be staphylococcus aureus that can cause:

The most common symptoms include:

  • A rash,
  • Itching ,
  • Pimples or pustules.

The lesions most often occur  near a hair follicle in the:

  • Neck,
  • Groin,
  • Genital area

Pimples can form a crust.

Lyme disease
The Lyme disease is an infection bacteria transmitted by a tick. 
In the early stages of Lyme disease, symptoms include:

  1. Neck stiffness ,
  2. Erythema cutaneous,
  3. Fever ,
  4. Swelling of the lymph nodes ,
  5. Headache ,
  6. Fatigue ,
  7. Muscle pain ,
  8. Joint pain .

A large rash may occur around the area of ​​the tick bite.

 

 

Infectious diseases that cause rashes

Herpes
A group of small blisters that become painful ulcers can be caused by herpes simplex . 
The first episode often causes pain and fever, while relapses may be milder. 
Herpes is the most common cause of skin rashes and ulcers:

  • In genitals ,
  • In the pubic region or groin.

 

The herpes labialis affects the lips and skin around the mouth. 
It is highly contagious and is usually transmitted sexually or through direct contact.

Other infectious diseases that cause a rash and affect children especially are:

1. Infectious erythema ; 
2. Roséola; 
3. Rubella ; 
4. Chicken pox ; 
5. Measles .

Meningitis
The meningitis is a bacterial or viral infection of the meninges covering the brain and spinal cord. 
The symptoms of meningitis may be: 
1. Fever, 
2. Convulsions, 
3. Nausea and vomiting , 
4. Rashes in the form of spots, 
5. Photophobia , 
6. Headache , 
7. Neck stiffness .

Hand-foot-mouth
disease Hand-foot-mouth disease is caused by a virus that mainly affects children. 
The features are a rash that forms blisters:

  • In the hands,
  • On the feet,
  • In the mouth.

 

Rashes caused by medicines

Drug rashes are reactions of the body that occur after taking a medicine, in particular:

  • Paracetamol,
  • Antibiotics (for example Augmentin and Zimox).

The type of rash that happens depends on the type of medication. 
The manifestations can be classified into the following groups:

1. Rashes caused by an allergic reaction to the medication; 
2. Skin reactions that consist of a side effect  of a drug; 
3. Rashes due to hypersensitivity to sunlight caused by medication.

 

Types of rashes caused by medicines

Allergic contact dermatitis: This reaction occurs with the application of a topical antibiotic on the skin, eyes or ears. 
The area of ​​skin that is treated with antibiotics may become red, itchy, and swollen.

Papular macular rash: This is a flat, red area on the skin that is covered by small bumps. 
The rash can happen anywhere in the body and can cause itching.

Urticaria:  the  hives causes red patches on the skin that can be raised and lighter in the center. 
The  urticarial reaction  can be localized (for example in the thorax) or may extend throughout the body and is characterized by severe itching. 
It can also cause blisters in the mouth or on the eyelids.

How long does a rash caused by medications take? 
The reaction continues until the end of the medication, but sometimes it can persist for a few days, rarely lasts a few weeks.

 

What are the signs and symptoms of a severe allergic reaction to medications?

Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis: This disease is more serious because it can cause skin peeling and blistering. 
It can also cause fever, cough , fatigue , respiratory, digestive or visual problems.

Angioedema:  the  Angioedema is characterized by swelling in the soft tissues of the body. Also the lips, tongue and eyelids may swell. 
Respiratory problems : The throat and lungs may tighten to the point of breathing difficulty.

Anaphylaxis: Anaphylactic shock is a sudden and dangerous allergic reaction. 
The symptoms are:

  • Skin rashes,
  • Breathing problems,
  • Throat tightness,
  • Fast heart rate ,
  • Fainting .

May also cause nausea and vomiting . 
The Anaphylaxis is an emergency that can cause death. 
Seek care immediately if you experience these symptoms.

 

Treatment for rashes by medications

The disease usually passes if the patient stops taking the medication that causes the reaction. 
Other treatments may include:

Cortisone , 
Antihistamines .

Allergic reactions can be serious and even deadly. 
When developing a rash it is important to contact your doctor immediately.

 

Eruption caused by food intolerance

Food intolerance occurs when the digestive system can not digest certain substances in food. The most frequent cases are intolerance :

Symptoms of food intolerance are:

1. Mouth and swollen tongue , 
2. Angioedema, 
3. Urticaria , 
4. And cutaneous ruptures, 
5. Redness in the face or other parts of the body. 
6. Itching . 
7. Eczema.

Celiac Disease
The dermatitis herpetiformis is characterized by a skin rash:

  • Itching,
  • Formation of bubbles.

It occurs when the skin reacts to circulating antigluten antibodies. 
Some people call it a “variant of celiac disease” because it occurs along with celiac disease . 
Although dermatitis herpetiformis can manifest anywhere in the body, the most common sites are:

  • Elbows,
  • Knees,
  • Buttocks,
  • Costas,
  • Back of neck.

 

Symptoms of dermatitis herpetiformis

  • Rashes in the same place each time. The disease occurs periodically.
  • The skin reaction can be continuous or come and go (intermittent).
  • Before the onset of dermatitis herpetiformis, the skin may itch in that position or a burning sensation may be felt .
  • The eruption itself manifests itself with:
    • Very intense itching,
    • Reddish skin,
    • Small pimples (similar to insect bites ) that contain  a clear liquid.
    • Papules (cutaneous elevations).
  • Spines caused by dermatitis herpetiformis usually pass after several days (during which new pimples appear nearby).
  • After healing, the rash leaves behind a small purple spot that lasts for weeks or months. 
    People with long-lasting dermatitis herpetiformis usually have red skin where the rash forms.
  • Among the other symptoms of celiac disease are:

 

Skin diseases that cause rashes in newborns

Often newborns have rashes or other skin problems. 
Most of them go by themselves in a few days or weeks. 
Here are some of the things we can observe on the baby’s skin:

Pimples on Newborns
Children often have red patches or pimples on their face:

  • Cheeks
  • Nose,
  • Head.

The acne baby or neonatal acne can be seen during the first weeks of life and often goes by itself in a few months. 
Pimples are not linked to acne problems in teenagers, but are caused by maternal hormones.

During pregnancy the mother passes her hormones onto the baby through the umbilical cord. 
After birth, the maternal hormones remain in the baby’s body. 
Neonatal acne:

  • It is the reaction caused by these hormones,
  • It passes by itself in a short time.

Milia 
Small white spots appear very often on the face of a newborn during the first week and are called milia. 
The baby’s skin looks stained. 
These points disappear by themselves in a few weeks.

Toxic Erythema
The baby’s skin looks stained. 
During the first day or two of life, many children have harmless red patches with small pimples that sometimes contain pus.

This rash is called toxic erythema. 
You may see:

  • Only in a small area,
  • In most of the body.

The reddish areas may come and go, but usually go without medication in a week.

Transient pustular 
melanosis A rash called pustular melanose is common among black newborns. 
The rash is harmless and does not require treatment. 
It causes pimple-filled pimples that can burst and form dark patches surrounded by fine scaly skin.

Heat rash
Children may have a rash caused by heat (miliary or rash) if they are too clothed or if the weather is too hot. 
This is a red or pink rash that is usually found on areas of the body covered by clothing. 
It often itches and causes discomfort to the child.

Diaper Dermatitis Diaper
dermatitis is red and painful and forms on the buttock or the genitals of the child. 
It occurs when the child remains with a wet diaper for a long time. 
Urine and feces can irritate the skin. 
Sometimes a bacterial or fungal infection can cause a diaper rash.

Saliva Eruption
Many children have a rash around the mouth or under the chin. It is caused by drool and saliva. 
Clean your baby’s face often, especially after you eat or spit.

Red spots on the skin
Small red spots on the skin of the newborn may be noticed . The rash with red dots is called petechiae . 
They are drops of blood that accumulate in the skin. They can be caused by crushing in the birth canal. Usually disappear in the first or second week.

The scalp of the baby is scaly
Many children have what is called the crib cap. 
Scaly skin or scabs on top of the baby’s head are caused by a normal buildup of:

  • Sticky tallow,
  • Scales and dead skin cells.

Cradle cap tends to cure without treatment in the first 5 months.

Stork
bite The bite of the stork is a smooth spot and vivid red color occurring mainly:

  • At the back of the neck,
  • In the upper eyelids,
  • In the upper lip,
  • Between the eyebrows.

Most often it passes at the age of 2 years, although often the plaques on the back of the neck remain until the child becomes an adult.

Mongolian Spot
The Mongolian spot is a m ark birth  smooth, flat, blue or bluish gray which usually form back or buttocks. 
It often looks like a bruise . 
Mongolian spotting is very common among Asian babies. 
Usually passes for school age, but may not disappear completely.

Hemangiomas
The wine stains are pink-red at birth and then become purplish-reddest. 
These birthmarks are formed by blood vessels that do not develop properly. 
Hemangiomas are embossed, blue, red, or purple birthmarks that are formed by a tuft of blood vessels that can be of any shape or size. 
Most of them grow for about a year and then turn white and begin to shrink.

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