Pain in the right or left leg

Pain in the legs can be constant or intermittent, develop suddenly or occur gradually, affecting the entire leg or a circumscribed area such as the shin or knee.
The pain can be varied: stabbing, cutting, dull, burning or tingling. Severe leg pain can interfere with walking or weight shifting to the leg.


Possible causes of pain in the right or left leg

This sudden and intense pain of the leg is more common in the elderly, endurance athletes or untrained people.
Spasms of the muscles are often caused by muscular fatigue or dehydration.
In most cases, one can mitigate the cramps by immediately interrupting the activities that caused them. If necessary, the aching muscle can be slightly stretched or massaged.
An effective natural remedy is a heat pad on the muscles to relieve the symptoms.
Proper warm-up and stretching can help avoid the problems in the future.

Periostitis (inflammation of the periosteum)
This type of pain in the legs occurs when the connective tissue and muscles along the inner edge of the shin become inflamed. This can often happen when running or jumping on hard ground.
The repetition of certain movements overuses muscles and tendons.
Flat feet and excessive external rotation of the foot and leg can promote these complaints.
The pain usually passes again at rest.
Natural remedies include ice pads, anti-inflammatories, and interrupting causative activities.
A relieving shoe insert is ideal for this disorder.
Therapy for periostitis also includes physiotherapy with laser therapy and magnetic therapy.
Once the pain subsides, the lower leg should be stretched and strengthened.
To avoid future problems, you should wear well-supported shoes and refrain from walking on hard surfaces.

Tendonitis and tendon injuries
One of the first signs of inflammation of the Achilles tendon is calf pain or pain in the back heel.
Possible therapies include the application of ice packs, anti-inflammatories, and avoiding anything that provokes the pain.
An elevation under the heel reduces the tension on the tendon, thereby promoting healing.
As with periostitis, one should wait until the pain subsides and then stretch and strengthen the muscles.
If the pain is severe, it may be caused by an injury to the Achilles tendon.
An Achilles tendon injury can be caused by intense activity and too fast warm-up.

A fracture can cause pain in the leg.
After slight distortions, the first measures are rest, ice, compression and high storage.
In case of severe distortion, a femoral fracture or an ankle fracture, ice should be applied and a doctor should be consulted immediately.
A plaster cast or orthosis may be required.
Physiotherapy and rehabilitation may also be necessary to stimulate circulation and advance the healing process.
Over time, it is necessary to restore the muscular strength of the leg.

Muscle injury
A tear is an excessive strain or tearing of a muscle or tendon.
A muscle lesion can be caused by repetitive activities or a single occurrence.
The diagnosis of a muscular strain can be made only after the doctor takes the medical history and performs a physical examination. Depending on the situation, an ultrasound scan may be required to confirm the diagnosis.
The therapy includes immobilization, ice packs, compression and high storage for 24-48 hours.
Most strains heal over time, but severe cases require apparative physiotherapy such as Tecartherapy and ultrasound.
Anti-inflammatory medications may be useful for relieving pain and inflammation.

Kinesio taping for strain of the
vastus medialis
muscle Action: relaxing. Shape: a “Y” stripe. Length: over the entire length of the muscle belly. Apply the strip without tension with the base at the bottom. Stretch the quadriceps and follow the muscular belly of the medial vastus muscle with the sides of the “Y”.

A distortion is an injury caused by excessive rotation or torsion of the ankle or knee.
This leads to stretching or tearing of the ligaments that connect the bones of the ankle.
Ligaments have the function of stabilizing the joints and preventing excessive movements. An ankle or knee distortion occurs when the ligaments are stretched beyond their normal range of motion. Sprained ankles are characterized by pain of the ligaments on the outside of the ankle.
The therapy of ankle distortion depends on the severity of the injury. In the case of a minor injury, self-treatment and over-the-counter anti-inflammatory drugs may already be sufficient.
In more severe cases, a medical examination may be needed to determine the extent of joint damage and therapy for its recovery.

Calf pain

A calf lesion is the tear of a muscle in the back of the lower leg, usually this is the two-headed calf muscle, the gastrocnemius.
A calf muscle rupture is divided into 1st, 2nd or 3rd severity.
The symptoms are examined to determine the treatment measures and exercises necessary for rehabilitation after a calf muscle strain.
The best diagnostic imaging method is ultrasound examination.

Another cause of calf pain is compartment syndrome. Compartment syndrome is a disorder caused by increased muscle dimensions; the muscle becomes too large for the surrounding shell due to the accumulation of fluid or blood. As a result, the pressure inside the muscle lodge rises and causes pain.

Deep vein thrombosis, or DVT, is a disorder of blood circulation in which a blood clot forms in the deep veins. DVT is a rare cause of calf pain, but can be life-threatening; therefore, calf pain must be given the necessary attention, especially if it also occurs during periods of rest.
DVT occurs predominantly in the legs, especially after prolonged inactivity, e.g. after prolonged sitting on intercontinental flights, but medication is also a possible trigger, including the contraceptive pill.
Symptoms include persistent pain in the calf muscles with numbness and swelling at one point deep in the muscle.

Pain after running

Pain and tension in the legs after running is quite normal, especially for those who are untrained or have increased the intensity of their training too quickly.
The cause is the accumulation of lactic acid, a substance produced by the body that is toxic to the cells.
To metabolize this substance, it takes a few hours.
The pain that you feel over 1-2 days after training is caused by a tension of the muscles, i.e. a constant tension of the muscle fibers.
To solve this problem, massage therapy (sports massage), stretching and Kinesio taping are recommended.

Pain when walking

When walking on high heels, pain may occur on the soles of the feet and calves.
Often it is enough to stop to relieve the pain.
The ideal heel height is 1-2 centimeters. Flat shoes (for example, ballerinas) strain the legs and back.

Nerve pain in the legs

These are some of the most common causes of pain in the legs caused by nervous disorders:

1. Narrowing of the spinal canal (stenosis) and sciatica.
2. A common cause of narrowing of the spinal canal is osteoarthritis of the spine.
3. Sometimes a disc hernia (herniated disc) presses on the surrounding nerve roots, which can lead to symptoms of sciatica, for example:

  • Burn
  • burning pain in the legs when standing or sitting,
  • Numbness
  • Tingle
  • fatigue,
  • Weakness.

The pain can start in the back, pelvis, and hips and then spread down to the legs.

The symptoms are stronger when getting up in the morning and weaken with physical activity.
Often, sciatica does not improve with short rest periods.
The therapy initially provides for a rest period of a few days, combined with the intake of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or corticosteroids.
Cold and heat applications can help with some symptoms.
Physical therapy and stretching exercises can be beneficial.
It is important to gradually increase the movement. The doctor may also recommend other therapies or surgical intervention if the pain does not pass.

Multiple sclerosis
Multiple sclerosis is a disease characterized by the degeneration of the myelin sheaths of the nerves.
Symptoms include:

  • pain in legs and arms,
  • Nausea
  • fatigue (especially in the evening),
  • Leg weight,
  • Vertigo
  • optic neuritis with loss of vision,
  • Indigestions.

Diabetogenic neuropathy
In diabetes, nerves can be damaged due to high blood sugar levels.
This is a common complication of diabetes in the elderly. This can lead to pain in both legs with numbness and loss of sensitivity below the knees.
Treatment includes relieving pain through local or oral medications and lowering blood sugar.

Venous diseases

The leg veins serve to transport the blood back to the heart. If venous problems arise, the leg swells (edema) and sometimes hurts.
A common problem is venous insufficiency, which can lead to varicose veins, repeated swelling and skin changes such as a brownish discoloration near the ankle.

A serious and potentially dangerous cause of leg pain is deep vein thrombosis (DVT). DVT is a blood clot in a leg vein that can detach and reach the lungs or other organs.

Peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAD)
Due to peripheral arterial occlusive disease, blood flow in the leg is compromised by narrowing the arteries of at least one leg.
PAD is associated with pain in the legs when walking and is relieved at rest. While vein problems often cause redness and overheating of the leg, the symptoms of peripheral arterial occlusive disease are: a cold and usually pale limb that has greater sensitivity to pain. Risk factors of PAD include smoking, heart disease and diabetes.


There are many diseases that can cause leg pain. Those who suffer from fibromyalgia often feel restless legs syndrome and painful nocturnal leg cramps.
The leg pain may also be associated with an autoimmune disease such as multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis.
Thyroid disorders can cause pain in the legs. Also, drugs for certain diseases are known to provoke pain and cramps in the legs.
Diuretics and statins for elevated cholesterol are common examples of drugs that cause pain in the leg muscles.
In such a case, the drug must be replaced or switched to natural therapy, but it is essential to consult the doctor beforehand.

An infection of the skin or soft tissues may be manifested by redness, pain, swelling and overheating.
The doctor may recommend antibiotics to fight the bacteria.
If the symptoms worsen or fever occurs, it is better to call the doctor.

Complaints that come from the back

Compression of the sciatic nerve causes a sharp pain that can continue to the feet.
The pain usually begins in one half of the buttocks and is felt on the outside and back of the leg. Inflammation of the sciatic nerve or sciatica is usually caused by a lumbar disc hernia, spinal canal stenosis, or a muscle that presses on a nerve, such as in piriformis syndrome.

Pain in the legs when getting up from sitting or lying down

If the legs hurt strongly, especially if the patient rises from a sitting position, the problem may be venous insufficiency or varicose veins.
If the venous valves allow part of the blood to flow back, this can cause severe pain.
Symptoms are reduced by stretching or light massages before getting up.
For diagnosis, an ultrasound examination or Doppler sonography is required.
The symptoms are heaviness, numbness and leg pain.
The therapy consists of a surgical procedure called endovenous ablation, in which the painful vein is closed to prevent the backflow of blood.

Causes of muscle pain in the legs during pregnancy

Foot and leg discomfort is a common problem in pregnant women, especially in the last trimester of pregnancy. Leg and foot pain is often caused by the weight gain and hormonal changes that lead to the loosening of the arch of the foot.

This leads to a tendency of flat feet and can also mean increased work for the leg muscles to maintain the stability of the foot. Cramps in the legs during pregnancy can be caused by fluctuations in the volume of blood or by the pressure on the sciatic nerves when enlarging the uterus.

Other causes of leg pain

  • seasonal influenza,
  • Menopause
  • arthritis and rheumatism affecting the ankles and knees,
  • Premenstrual syndrome that occurs before the menstrual period. Some women feel the symptoms before the cycle, while others feel them a few days after ovulation.

Leg pain in certain positions

If pain in the legs worsens greatly when sitting, standing or walking, this may indicate a problem of the back nerves. A comfortable position is therefore necessary to relieve the pain. For example, bending in spinal canal stenosis can provide pain relief, while a rotation (like the golf swing) can increase tension on the nerves that causes pain in the groin, hip, and leg.

What causes pain in both legs on the front of the thigh?
Pain on both fronts of the legs can be transferred pain from the psoas muscle.
The contracture of this muscle can cause discomfort in the area of the quadriceps and is relatively common.

Pain at the back of the leg when sitting

Anyone who feels pain along the back or side of the leg is likely to suffer from piriformis syndrome.
This condition is caused by the contracture of this gluteal muscle, which may be accompanied by compression of the sciatic nerve.
Therapy consists in manipulating the affected muscle, gluteal muscles and psoas muscle (located behind the abdominal muscles).

Rare causes include:

  • Bone cancer (osteosarcoma, Ewing’s sarcoma)
  • medications such as allopurinol and corticosteroids
  • Calvé-Legg-Perthes disease, a decreased blood supply to the hip area can interrupt or slow the normal growth of the legs
  • Benign tumors or cysts of the femur or shin (osteoid osteoma)
  • Osteochondritis and Osgood Schlatter syndrome, mostly in athletic children and adolescents between 10 and 15 years.

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