When the bladder is full, it expands because the muscles in the walls relax. 
When the person urinates, the muscles contract so that the urine leaves through the urethra.

In men , the bladder is located:

  1. Above the prostate
  2. In front of the rectum,
  3. Behind the pubic symphysis.

In women , the bladder is located:

  1. Under the uterus and the peritoneal cavity,
  2. In front of the vagina,
  3. Behind the pubic symphysis.

The bladder is at the level of the lower sacral vertebrae .
The pain that originates from the bladder is a deep pain, below the navel and just above or at the same level as the pubic bone.
Depending on the cause, bladder pain may radiate to:

  1. The genitals,
  2. The sides of the abdomen (hips),
  3. The column .


Causes of pain in the bladder

We do not know the exact cause, but most researchers believe that an event can trigger the pain and some of the triggers may be:

  • Bacterial infection
  • Excessive dilation of the bladder due to long periods without going to the toilet
  • Injury of the nerve in or around the bladder or spinal cord
  • Inflammation of the epididymis (or epididymitis) can cause pain in the testiclesthat radiates to the bladder
  • The pain in the ovaries before the menstrual cycle can be felt even in correspondence with the bladder located in front of the uterus.
  • Interstitial cystitis,
  • Endometriosis ,
  • Pelvic inflammatory disease,
  • Cancer,
  • Problem due to surgery or injuries.


Pain in the bladder caused by interstitial cystitis

Interstitial cystitis (IC) is a chronic disease, in which the bladder becomes inflamed, but there is no infection as in bacterial cystitis.
The IC may be due to a defect in the internal wall of the bladder.
Women are much more prone to this disease than men.


  1. The main symptom is the need to urinate frequently , day and night, even with a small amount of urine (up to 60 times a day).
  2. Another important symptom is intermittent or constant pain (day and night) or the feeling of pressure around the bladder.
    The bladder hurts a lot more when it is full, while the discomfort is reduced after you have urinated.
  3. Pain in the spine  and pain in the abdomen.
  4. Pelvic pain between the vagina and the anus (in women),
  5. Pain between the scrotum and the anus (in man),
  6. Pain during intercourse.

Sexual problems may be related to interstitial cystitis.

The worsening of the symptoms of interstitial cystitis may occur:

  1. After eating certain foods or drinks (such as coffee, alcoholic drinks, spicy foods),
  2. During the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle (14 to 28 days after the first day of the last cycle),
  3. During times of stress , after activities such as physical exercises and sexual intercourse
  4. After sitting for long periods of time (for example, during a flight).


Pain in the bladder while urinating

In the abdomen there are many organs, some are responsible for digestion and urination.
In all organs, dysfunctions and infections can occur that can cause abdominal pain and pain when urinating:

  1. Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) – A urinary tract infection can occur in any organ of the urinary system.
  2. Prostatitis – inflammation of the prostate
  3. Infection with Chlamydia trachomatis and gonococcal infection ( gonorrhea ) – are sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) caused by bacteria
  4. Kidney stones
  5. Bladder cancer
  6. Endometrial cancer – a type of cancer that starts in the inner wall of the uterus
  7. Urethritis – inflammation of the urethra (the tube that carries the urine from the bladder to the outside of the body)
  8. Pyelonephritis – Pyelonephritis is caused by a bacterial infection of the renal parenchyma (the part consisting of nephrons)
  9. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) – infection of the reproductive organs in women
  10. Obstructive uropathy – when urine can not flow (partially or completely) through the ureter, bladder or urethra due to obstruction
  11. Urethral stenosis – if the urethra is narrow, it may limit urinary flow.


Bladder pain in women

Prolapse of the bladder or cystocele
The prolapsed bladder occurs when the bladder descends from its original position and protrudes out of the body via the vaginal wall.
This occurs when the supporting structures in the pelvic cavity (muscles and ligaments) are weaker and longer.
The symptoms are:

  1. A sensation of fullness or pelvic pressure, this symptom worsens during an effort, by coughing, laughing, and standing for a long time.
  2. A feeling of incomplete emptying of the bladder
  3. Recurrent cystitis
  4. Pain during intercourse or leakage of urine.

Endometriosis is a disorder characterized by the presence of internal tissue of the uterus (endometrium) in other organs, such as the ovaries or the stomach.
It is a chronic disease and can cause pain:

The severity of the symptoms varies and may include:

  1. Severe menstrual pain ,
  2. Pain after intercourse,
  3. Pain during urination or bowel movement during menstruation,
  4. Nausea
  5. Menstruation abundant.

Pelvic inflammatory
disease Pelvic inflammatory disease is an infection of the genital tract (cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes and ovaries).
In most cases it does not cause symptoms, in other cases it can cause:

  1. Lower abdominal pain ,
  2. Pain during intercourse,
  3. Pain during urination,
  4. Vaginal discharge with bad smell,
  5. Bleeding between one cycle and another or after intercourse,
  6. Nausea,
  7. Fever .


Pain in the bladder in pregnancy

Third trimester pregnancy
Although the second trimester may give some relief from bladder pressure because the uterus moves upward in the abdomen, the third trimester may cause an increase in discomfort as the baby grows.
When the baby moves, kicks and sudden fetal movements can cause a sudden pressure on the bladder, which can cause loss of urine.

Frequent urination
Pressure on the bladder can cause the urge to urinate frequently .
The bladder fills more often because of other body fluids.
You can also confuse the child’s pressure with the sensation of a full bladder, when you go to the toilet finds out that there is no need to urinate.
Bladder pressure and frequent urination may also be symptoms of a urinary tract infection, a common illness during pregnancy.

Urinary Tract Infection Urinary
tract infections can occur during pregnancy due to changes in the urinary tract.
The child’s growth can block the drainage of urine from the bladder, causing an infection.
You have a higher risk of developing a urinary tract infection between the 6th and 24th weeks of pregnancy.
With an infection, you may suffer from:

To avoid this disease it is important to urinate immediately after intercourse.


Urinary symptoms that can occur with bladder pain

Bladder pain caused by cystitis may accompany other urinary system-related symptoms, including:

Symptoms may vary from day to day.

Other symptoms that may occur with bladder pain

Bladder pain may occur with symptoms related to other organs of the male or female body, including:


Severe symptoms that may indicate a fatal illness

In some cases, bladder pain may be a symptom of a dangerous disease being evaluated immediately. You should go to the emergency room if you have any of these symptoms:

  • High fever (more than 38 degrees)
  • Inability to urinate – due to obstruction of the urinary tract,
  • Persistent vomiting – in case of urinary tract infection
  • Severe abdominal pain – due to an infection.


Complications of bladder pain?

The potential complications of bladder pain depend on the cause.
The bladder pain associated with a serious illness (such as cancer) can have chronic and even deadly complications.
In addition, the bladder pain that is associated with an acute bladder infection can cause a more serious complication as the spread of the infection.
If they are cured, diseases that cause bladder pain can cause the following complications:

  • Chronic or permanent pain
  • Sepsis (a bacterial infection of the blood that can be fatal)
  • Spread of cancer


Diagnosis of bladder pain

A diagnosis of interstitial cystitis is often made, excluding other diseases that may cause similar symptoms, such as vaginal and urinary tract infections.
There are some diseases that can also cause pain in men, for example:

  1. Cancer of bladder ,
  2. Kidney stones.

Kidney stones cause pain especially in the kidneys (right or left side) that can radiate back to the genitals and groin.
The doctor informs about past diseases and performs a physical examination.
You can ask the patient how many times you go to the bathroom, feel the urge to urinate and when you feel pain.
You can perform the following exams:

  • Urine tests
  • Cystoscopy. After filling the bladder with a liquid, the doctor will insert a long, narrow instrument (cystoscope) through the urethra to see the inside of the bladder.
  • An ultrasound or pelvic CT scan to rule out other diseases

Treatment for bladder pain

Treatment can help relieve bladder pain and the urge to urinate, but finding the right one often is difficult. Here are some treatment options:

What to take? Medications for bladder pain

Sodium pentosan polysulfate (Elmiron®) is the only oral drug approved by the Food and Drug Administration for treating interstitial cystitis.
This medicine does not work for everyone and may take several months to take effect.

Other medications used to treat interstitial cystitis include:

The antihistamine Hidroxizine,

The tricyclic antidepressant amitriptyline (Amytril).

Medications for epilepsy are sometimes used, such as:

  • A gabapentina (Neurontin),
  • Topirax (Topamax).

Other proven treatments include immunosuppressive drugs such as Sandimmun Neoral and Azathioprine.

For mild bladder pain the doctor may prescribe:

  1. Analgesics such as aspirin and paracetamol,
  2. Anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen (Alivium).

Often prescription drugs are needed for interstitial cystitis.

Natural Remedies for Bladder Pain

It is necessary to always consult a doctor before trying any treatment to make sure that you do not suffer from anything more serious.
Meanwhile, try these things (can be done safely and comfortably at home to help relieve pain):

  • Put a hot water bottle in the perineum (the area between the anus and the vagina)
  • Staying relaxed in the crouching position with your knees toward your chest
  • Drink 6 glasses of water a day so that urine does not become too concentrated and causes irritation.

Some lifestyle changes can reduce pain.
They can make the pain worse:

  1. The spicy foods,
  2. Caffeinated beverages,
  3. Alcohol.

Also  smoking leaves the bladder pain more intense because of the harmful by-products contained in the cigarettes.
Wearing wide skirts and pants can help you feel more comfortable.


Diet and feeding for bladder pain

More and more people are turning to naturopathy to treat diseases because conventional medicine:

  1. It only acts on the symptoms,
  2. It often gives a temporary improvement.

There are not many scientific studies on diet for cystitis, but there are many testimonials from people who have recovered following the blood-type diet and other diets based on natural foods.
In particular, according to the blood group diet, the causes of cystitis are:

  1. Pepper and chili,
  2. Milk, dairy products and desserts containing milk,
  3. Salami and pork.

In addition, a person may develop diseases when eating some foods that are not compatible with their blood group (0, A, B, AB).
The foods recommended by this type of food are those of the Mediterranean diet, in particular:

  1. Fish (tuna, mackerel, salmon, etc.),
  2. Legumes (chickpeas, beans, lentils, peas, etc.),
  3. Vegetables (all but beware of tomatoes because they can cause illness to some people).

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