Meniscus tear symptoms

Symptoms of a meniscus tear can be caused by:

– High pressure or bruising that occurs when you hit the ground after a jump, especially if your legs are straight.

– If the meniscus is severely compressed during sports or physical activity, it can tear, a microfracture becoming a complete tear through the entire thickness of the meniscus tissue.

– If you are in a squatting position for a long time , you can feel a painful sting when you stand up due to the injury.

 – A sharp twist of the knee while walking or running, such as when changing direction. – A sharp twist of the knee while walking or running, such as when changing direction.

– Sudden hyperextension of the knee, as when kicking into space ( football ), which can injure the medial meniscus and hamstrings.

Especially when a soccer player wants to shoot with full force but misses the ball, this open kinetic chain movement is not at all physiological and leads to an imbalance between the flexors, extensors and rotators of the knee.

– Minor causes are repeated micro-traumas, sprains or sports activities performed by untrained and insufficiently prepared casual athletes.

What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Meniscus Injury?

In the acute phase, pain , a limitation of active and passive movements and a limp become noticeable.
If the medial meniscus is injured, the pain occurs in the inner part of the knee, if the lateral meniscus is injured, the pain is in the outer part.
Symptoms worsen when pressure is applied to the affected area, as well as when hyperextending and bending severely (>90°), such as squatting.

The first few days after the onset, even walking becomes painful and the patient limps.
The symptoms decrease over time, in less severe cases they can disappear without treatment.

The signs are: swelling (intumescence) with joint bruising (hemarthrosis) and overheating of the joint, typical signs of an inflamed knee.

Kneecap ballottement is a movement test that the orthopedic surgeon performs to determine the extent of the inflammation; the patella is thereby displaced into an extremity, the test is positive if it rebounds from the compressive effect of the flammable fluid.

How is a meniscus injury diagnosed? What investigations are carried out?

First, the specialist (orthopaedist or physiatrist) must carry out a clinical examination ; he will analyze the medical history, palpate the contours of the meniscus, assess signs and symptoms, and perform various standard tests : e.g. Bohler, McMurray, Griding tests, etc.

A correct diagnosis is the basis for further treatment. The doctor will decide if they want to confirm their diagnosis with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the knee), which in this case is the most accurate test because it also shows soft tissue.
An X-ray only shows the bones and a sonography only the outer tissues, so both methods are unsuitable for a suspected meniscus or ligament lesion .
The medical history will provide information as to whether the trauma was indirect, caused by twisting, or standing up after being in a crouched position for a long time.

Symptoms   differ depending on the type of lesion traumatic meniscus damage is characterized by severe pain, loss of function, and restriction of movement (even to a large extent) when extending and bending the knee; in the case of wear-related meniscus degeneration, on the other hand, a locally limited ter pain prevail.
The pain is felt when climbing stairs, especially when going down the stairs.

In the differential diagnosis, knee fractures , articular cartilage pathologies , calcifications, meniscus cysts and tumors are taken into account.
Basically, a distinction must be made as to whether the meniscus lesion is the result of trauma or due to degenerative changes, similar to arthrosis .

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