Male or female infertility is a problem that affects many couples and in recent years has become more frequent.

It can be defined idiopathic (without explanation) when the cause is not known; in other cases, it is caused by a disease.
Absolute infertility means the inability to conceive for the couple.

After how long have you talked about infertility? 
If a couple is unable to conceive after 12 months of unprotected intercourse, there may be fertility problems, regardless of the number of attempts.


Main causes of primary female infertility

Primary infertility means no pregnancy was able to come to an end.

The Endometriosis is a disease in which tissues that should be found inside the uterus grow out of it.
In most cases, there is no symptom of endometriosis. In some situations it can cause pelvic pain, painful intercourse and  painful menstrual cycle .
In these diseases, the doctor may try to surgically remove the tissue and release the fallopian tubes. Fertility
drugs  and artificial insemination can help conception.

Problems with ovulation
Many women suffer from ovulation problems that do not allow the release of a mature ovum in the uterus.
The symptoms of this disease include abnormally light or heavy cycles, infrequent menstruation, etc.

Obstruction of the Fallopian tubes
In some cases, the uterine tube is blocked or injured. This does not allow sperm to reach the egg and fertilize it. This problem may occur due to pelvic inflammatory disease, infection with a  sexually transmitted disease , etc.

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome
The syndrome polycystic ovary (PCOS) is a disease which inhibits growth of the ovaries.
This disease occurs along with hormonal imbalance and with an irregular ovulation pattern.
The presence of polycystic ovarian syndrome may be indicated by obesity, acne and irregular cycles . Women with these problems are advised to reduce weight and are prescribed fertility drugs , to improve the chances of conceiving.

Anovulation Anovulatory
infertility occurs in women who do not have a menstrual cycle or who have irregular cycles that are  very short (about 20 days or less) or very long (more than 35 days).

Thyroid Disorders and Fertility Thyroid
disorders have a significant impact on fertility.
The thyroid disorder is mainly of two types:

  • The hypothyroidism is characterized by insufficient production of thyroid hormones,
  • The hyperthyroidism is hyperactive endocrine causes overproduction of thyroid hormones. Generally, women suffering from hypothyroidism have more difficulty getting pregnant than those with hyperthyroidism.

In hypothyroidism, the level of thyroid hormones is low and the functioning of the body becomes extremely slow.
Physical symptoms of hypothyroidism include weight gain, fatigue , joint and muscle pain , digestive problems, etc.
Another significant effect is the irregularity of the menstrual cycle.
Women with hypothyroidism have a heavy menstrual flow that lasts longer than usual.

Secondary infertility in women

The inability to conceive a child after having had one or more children is defined as secondary infertility.

Causes of Secondary Infertility in Women
One of the most common causes of primary or secondary infertility is age .
After 35 years the design becomes a bit difficult.
Generally, after the first child the couple tries to wait some time.
After a few years, the couple program their next child, which usually happens between 30 and 40 years.
Older age decreases the chance of conceiving a child.
It is also possible to consider polycystic ovaries or polycystic ovary syndrome (which causes ovulation disorders) as a responsible for infertility.
In women sexually transmitted infections such as chlamydia can be one of the causes of secondary infertility.
A previous ectopic pregnancy can damage the fallopian tubes, causing difficulty in conception.
uterine fibroid can cause problems with the egg implant in the uterus.
Lack of cervical mucus (which helps sperm motility) can cause difficulties in fertilizing the egg.

After a cesarean birth, a new pregnancy can be difficult or impossible in the early years, although the causes are not known for sure.


Obesity and fertility
In women, excess body weight causes hormonal imbalances that cause complications related to the menstrual cycle and ovulation.
Fat body cells (such as visceral fat in the abdominal region) cause the production of harmful hormones and acids.

Because of the excess fat in the body, women may suffer from symptoms of “estrogenic predominance,” a disease in which there is an excess of the estrogen hormone in the body.
In addition, estrogen is also a necessary component of the birth control pill .
If there is too much estrogen in the body, the eggs do not reach the wall of the ovary (like birth control pills) and the conception becomes very difficult.
Obesity also affects the menstrual cycle of women and during pregnancy increases the risk of miscarriage , hypertension and gestational diabetes mellitus .

Symptoms of fertility problems in women

Irregular Menstrual Cycle
When menstrual cycles do not occur every month there are probabilities of having fertility problems. A very short (less than 24 days) or very long (more than 35 days) menstrual cycle can be a cause for concern.

Problems with menstrual bleeding
During menstruation, a very heavy or slight bleeding can mean that there are serious problems.
A blood loss lasting 3 to 7 days indicates a normal cycle.
However, bleeding that lasts longer than 7 days with severe and painful abdominal cramps may indicate a problem with fertility.

Chronic Health Problems
Women who suffer from: Can be predisposed to infertility

When a woman suffers from these problems, she should talk to her doctor to avoid taking medications that threaten conception.

Recurrent Abortion
It is said that women who have abortions suffer from fertility problems. If the third consecutive pregnancy ends in an abortion , this can be a sign of infertility.

Cancer and Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Women who have had cancer in the past may have trouble becoming mothers; chemotherapy may have affected the ability to conceive.
In addition, women who have had a sexually transmitted infection (such as chlamydia, gonorrhea , etc.) may find it difficult to get pregnant.

Infertility in men


Environmental factors
Health quality has deteriorated considerably due to pollution, exposure to industrial wastes, toxic pesticides, temperature rise, radiation and similar factors.
This affects overall health and in some cases can have a direct effect on the fertility of man.

Psychological factors
can also negatively affect psychological factors such as stress, pressure at work, responsibilities, having to deal with failures and any other negative force.

Health factors 
Testicular problems affect fertility factors such as:

  • High levels of FSH (follicle stimulating hormone),
  • Pain and swelling of the testicles ,
  • Irregular size of the two testicles,
  • Testicular trauma and torsion,
  • Difficulty in ejaculation,
  • Premature ejaculation .


Sperm problems

  • Abnormal sperm,
  • Low number of spermatozoa,
  • Vasectomy,
  • Low rate of sperm motility.


Hormonal problems

  • Low, high, or absent testosterone production
  • Impotence
  • Problems of sexual function
  • Insomnia
  • Muscle weakness etc.

It can cause infertility in men:

Purchased / external factors

1. Smoking – affects sperm quality.
2. Poor lifestyle – ie lack of physical exercise, non-nutritious and inadequate diet, etc.


Secondary infertility in men

Also in the masculine gender the increase of the age can be responsible for the infertility.
After 35 years in men the fertility rate decreases.
Low numbers of sperm can be one of the main reasons for infertility.
In some cases, sperm die or are unable to swim, making fertilization difficult or impossible.
Some diseases and hormonal disorders can cause an autoimmune response in which the body develops antibodies against spermatozoa, which die.
Problems with erection and premature ejaculation can be a cause of infertility.
There may be decreases in sperm quality that cause infertility and are due to illness, poor diet and lifestyle changes.

Signs of Male and Female Infertility

In men and women, the most frequent sign of infertility is the fact that the couple failed to conceive even after a year of unprotected sex.
If the man does not seem interested in sexual intercourse (for a long period of time) and mention reasons such as fatigue , stress or moodiness, it can be a sign of infertility.
The inability to get an erection is one of the physical signs of infertility.
When a man can not ejaculate, this is considered a sign of infertility.
A sterile man is usually not well and this can be seen in appearance (he has dull skin and a general tired look).

Infertility and depression

Many couples who can not have biological children suffer from depression.

Depression Due to Infertility
This type of depression includes a mix of many emotions including jealousy, obsession, anger, sadness, self doubt, negative self-image and loneliness.
In these moments, women are beginning to blame themselves.
Guilt becomes strong when they realize that the spouse, in-laws, and other relatives are desperately waiting for the new family member.
When women believe they are denying happiness to others, they feel even more guilty and lose all confidence in themselves. In this mental state it becomes difficult to deal with depression.

Diagnosis and exams for male and female infertility

The doctor who must be consulted is the andrologist for the man and the gynecologist for the woman.

For women

  • Blood tests . It is necessary to evaluate the hormone values:  FSH, LH progesterone, estrogen, prolactin and thyroid hormones.
  • Ultrasonography . Transvaginal ultrasonography shows the abnormal formations in the vagina or uterus.
  • Hysterosalpingography. This test is used to show uterine malformations. It is an x – ray of the uterus with the contrast medium.
  • Hysterosonography: this examination evaluates uterine cavity normality and tubal accessibility by injecting sterile saline into the uterine cavity
  • Vaginal smear. It is used to find out if the woman suffers from a sexually transmitted disease.
  • Genetic testing. To identify possible anomalies in the individual’s chromosomes.

For the man

  • The spermogram (or semen analysis) is necessary to see if there is anything abnormal in terms of appearance, mobility, number and other parameters of the sperm.
  • Testicular biopsy,
  • Dosing of sperm fructose,
  • Post-ejaculation urine analysis,
  • Determination of the number of leukocytes present in semen,
  • Examination of antisperm antibodies,
  • Sperm function tests – to confirm the ability of sperm to fertilize,
  • Ultrasonography.

Natural Remedies for Male and Female Infertility

Acupuncture for fertility treatment
In females: the use of acupuncture for fertility treatment is a much debated topic, but statistics show that doing the treatment with IVF is highly beneficial for functional problems.
Helps fertility by increasing blood flow in the reproductive organs and especially by balancing hormonal levels in females.

In males: this treatment is a panacea because the success of the drugs for male infertility is relatively low.
Acupuncture helps balance hormone levels and improves kidney function, thereby increasing sperm vitality and quality.

Supplements recommended in males according to conventional medicine
Coenzyme Q10 supplements can improve male fertility because this antioxidant substance prevents sperm oxidation.
Among other substances useful for increasing testosterone and sperm motility are:
1. Selenium ,
2. Zinc,
3. Flaxseed,
4. Vitamin C and E.

Homeopathic Treatments for Infertility
Here is a list of homeopathic medicines that can be very helpful for female infertility and help in eliminating the underlying causes:

  • Sepia 6ch : in women it is very useful for the release of healthy ovarian eggs. In men, the 6ch sepia helps to improve desire levels, thus increasing fertility.
  • Silica : is a silicon and oxygen compound very useful for women with weakened immune systems. Silica helps restore lost strength and increases overall immune system functionality and fertility.
  • Lycopodium : is a very effective remedy for women who suffer from lower abdominal pain and vaginal dryness . In men it helps to treat different types of ejaculation problems, mainly due to an underlying cause.

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