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Magnesium-properties and deficiency

Magnesium is a mineral often used in natural medicine. 
It is the most abundant mineral room in the body and is essential for good health.

About 50% of total body magnesium is found in bones.
The other half is mostly found within the cells of the body’s organs and tissues.
Only 1% of magnesium is found in the blood, but the body works to maintain a constant blood level.
Magnesium is required for more than 300 biochemical reactions.
This substance helps maintain normal function of muscles and nerves, maintains a stable heart rate, supports the immune system and keeps bones strong.
In addition magnesium also helps to regulate blood sugar levels, promotes normal pressure and is known to be involved in energy metabolism and protein synthesis.
This mineral salt consumed in the diet is absorbed in the small intestine and is excreted in the urine.

Where is magnesium?

Green leafy vegetables such as spinach are good sources of magnesium because the center of the chlorophyll molecule contains magnesium.
Some vegetables are good sources: (beans and peas), nuts, seeds and whole grains unrefined.
Generally refined cereals have a low magnesium content: when the white flour is refined and processed, the germ and bran rich in this mineral are removed.
Bread made from whole wheat flour contains more magnesium compared to that made from refined white flour.
Tap water may be a source of magnesium, but the amount varies: the water containing the most minerals is the “hard” one.
Eating a variety of vegetables, nuts, whole grains and vegetables helps meet the daily needs of magnesium.

Food sources:
The ten foods richest in magnesium are:

  • Seaweed
  • Almonds
  • Cashew nut
  • Molasses
  • Buckwheat
  • Brazil nuts
  • Dulse
  • Hazelnuts
  • Corn
  • American walnuts

To maintain a high level of magnesium and better avoid:

– Black tea or ordinary coffee and decaffeinated –
Cooked food –
Alcohol – Products
from non-organic herds using herbicides and pesticides that can deplete the magnesium of the soil
– Refined sugar, corn syrup and artificial sweeteners
– Extended stress
– Table salt common, it is better to replace it with Himalayan salt –
Tap water containing sodium fluoride, it is better to use a good filter for water –
Refined foods of any kind including unfermented soy products.

When can magnesium deficiency occur?

Although some research suggests that many Americans do not consume the minimum amount of magnesium, symptoms of magnesium deficiency are rare in the United States.
However, there is concern that many people have little magnesium because it is not absorbed properly by the body.
The state of health of the digestive system and kidneys drastically affect magnesium levels.
This is absorbed in the gut and then transported through the blood into the cells and tissues.
Gastrointestinal disorders that cause malabsorption, such as Crohn’s disease , may limit the body’s ability to absorb magnesium.

Black tea © Mary-camomila-Fotolia

These disorders can impoverish the deposits and in extreme cases, cause states of deficiency.

The healthy kidneys are able to restrict the urinary excretion of magnesium.
Excessive loss of magnesium in the urine can be a side effect of certain medications and may also occur in the case of diabetes or alcohol abuse.
The first signs of magnesium deficiency are: loss of appetite , nausea , vomiting , fatigue and weakness , while in severe cases there are numbness, tingling , muscle spasms and cramps , seizures, personality changes, cardiac arrhythmias and coronary spasm.
The lack of severe magnesium can lead to low levels of calcium in the blood (hypocalcemia) and is also associated with low blood levels of potassium(hypokalemia).

Anxiety and Magnesium

During periods of increased stress and tension the body uses an amount of magnesium above normal, if you do not have enough magnesium, the result can be a state of anxiety.
Therefore, a supplement during this period can resolve anxiety.

Who needs a magnesium supplement?

A magnesium supplement can be indicated when a specific health problem causes an excessive loss of this mineral salt or limits the absorption.
Some medicines can cause a lack, including diuretics, antibiotics and medicines used to treat cancer (antineoplastic).

Some examples are:

  • Diuretics: Furosemide, hydrochlorothiazide
  • Antibiotics : gentamicin and amphotericin b
  • Antineoplastic drugs: cisplatin

The individuals who can benefit from a magnesium supplement are:
– Diabetics , because of the loss of magnesium in the urine due to hyperglycemia.
– People suffering from alcoholism, where in 30-60% of cases they have low blood levels of magnesium.
– Individuals with chronic malabsorption problems such as Crohn’s disease, irritable bowel syndrome and celiac disease may lose magnesium with diarrhea.
– Individuals with low blood levels of potassium and calcium
– The elderly, where absorption is reduced and renal excretion of the mineral increases because of some medications.
– People with problems with their teeth, nails and hair, magnesium is good for the health of these body parts.

Magnesium supplements can be found in a pharmacy or in the handling pharmacy.

Daily necessities of magnesium are:

Children 1-3 years of age: 40-80 mg / day
Children 4-8 years: 130 mg / day
Children 9 to 13 years: 240 mg / day
Men 14 to 18 years: 410 mg per day
Females 14-18 years : 360 mg per day

Pregnant females aged 14-18 years: 400 mg per day
Breast-fed women aged 14-18 years: 360 mg / day

Men aged 19-30 years: 400 mg per day
Females 19-30 years: 310 mg per day
Men over 31 years: 420 mg per day
Females over 31 years: 320 mg per day

Pregnant women aged 19-30 years: 350 mg / day
Pregnant women over 31 years: 360 mg per day
Women who breast-feed at age 19-30: 310 mg per day
Women who breast-feed more than 31 years: 320 mg per day

Properties of Magnesium

Magnesium is used to:

-Asthma
Several studies show that magnesium taken intravenously and inhaled through a nebulizer can provide benefits in the treatment of acute asthma attack in children and adolescents between 6 and 18 years of age as well as adults; however, there is no evidence that magnesium tablets help reduce asthma symptoms.
Low levels of magnesium may increase the risk of developing asthma.
A clinical study in a population of more than 2,500 children and adolescents aged 11 to 19 years showed that a low intake of magnesium in the diet may be associated with the risk of asthma.
The same was found in a group of more than 2,600 adults between the ages of 18 and 70.

-Depression
An insufficient level of magnesium appears to reduce serotonin levels. A 2008 study showed that magnesium is effective as tricyclic antidepressants in treating depression among people with diabetes.

-Diabetes
Often, people with type 2 diabetes have low levels of magnesium in their blood.
A large clinical study with more than 2,000 people showed that increased intake of magnesium in the diet may help protect against the onset of type 2 diabetes .
Some studies suggest that magnesium supplements may help control the amount of blood sugar in people with diabetes or pre-diabetes.

-Fibromyalgia
A small preliminary study with 24 people with fibromyalgia has shown that the tablets containing malic acid and magnesium improve the pain associated with fibromyalgia if taken for at least 2 months.
Other studies suggest a combination of calcium and magnesium.

Noise Caused by Noise
A study shows that magnesium intake can prevent permanent or temporary hearing loss due to a loud noise.

– Arrhythmia and heart failure
Magnesium is essential for heart health. The studies suggest a possible link between a lower risk of coronary heart disease in men and an increase in magnesium intake.
Magnesium helps maintain a normal heart rate and sometimes the hospital is given intravenously to reduce the likelihood of atrial fibrillation and cardiac arrhythmias (irregular heartbeats).

People with congestive heart failure (CHF) are at risk of developing cardiac arrhythmia; for this reason, your doctor may recommend a magnesium supplement.
One study showed that taking magnesium orotate for a year the symptoms are reduced and improves the survival rate in people with CHF when compared to those who took the placebo.
Magnesium and calcium work together with very accurate reports to ensure proper heart function

Other studies have confirmed the role of magnesium in treating people with previous infarction.
Some have reported lower mortality rates as well as fewer arrhythmias and an improvement in blood pressure, but other research has found an increased risk of sudden death or other heart attack or need for coronary  bypass during the year following the attack.

-Hipertension
Eating daily in a healthy and balanced way, preferring fruits and vegetables is associated with a lower blood pressure.

Many of these foods are rich in magnesium, calcium and potassium. A large clinical study with more than 8,500 women has shown that increasing magnesium intake in the diet may reduce the risk of hypertension.
Some studies also suggest that magnesium supplements may help to have low blood pressure , although not all studies agree.

-Migraine
Some studies suggest that magnesium supplements do well for migraine , to shorten the duration and reduce the amount of medication needed. People suffering from migraine tend to have low levels of magnesium.
Some experts also suggest a combination of magnesium with vitamin B2 (riboflavin).
It is also very useful to ingest magnesium in women with headaches related to the menstrual cycle .

-Osteoporosis
Lack of calcium, vitamin D, magnesium and other micronutrients may play an important role in the development of osteoporosis . To avoid this, it is essential to take a fair amount of these elements, follow a balanced diet and do moderate physical activity throughout life.

-Pre-eclampsia and eclampsia
Pre-eclampsia is characterized by an increase in blood pressure during the third trimester of pregnancy.
Women with pre-eclampsia may develop seizures, a condition called eclampsia.
Magnesium administered intravenously at the hospital is the treatment of choice to prevent or treat these seizures and to prevent complications of preeclampsia.

Pre-Menstrual Syndrome
Scientific studies show that magnesium supplements can help relieve the symptoms associated with menstrual pain , especially abdominal bloating , insomnia, swollen legs, weight gain and tension in the sinuses. Studies show a good synergy between magnesium and vitamin B6.

Restless legs syndrome
A small clinical study in 10 patients showed that magnesium improves insomnia related to restless leg syndrome (a disorder characterized by a sensation of discomfort in the legs that increases during periods of inactivity, rest or while sitting or lying down).

How can one take magnesium?

Eating whole grains, vegetables and vegetables (especially green leaves) every day helps to provide enough magnesium and maintain normal supplies in the body.
Magnesium is in the form of tablets, capsules and granules, which are useful in case of scarcity, but when blood levels are very low they should be administered intravenously.

This is why people with kidney disease may not be able to get rid of the excessive amount of magnesium, they should not take magnesium supplements unless prescribed by a doctor.
Magnesium in oral supplements is associated with another substance, a salt that determines bioavailability and absorption: we find, for example, magnesium oxide, sulphate and carbonate.

Magnesium supplements are often sold together with those of potassium in the pharmacy.
Who has lost many minerals through sweat or due to illness, needs both.

Possible interactions:

The use of magnesium should be under strict medical supervision in case of concomitant ingestion of: –
Aminoglycosides, to avoid paralysis and neuromuscular weakness.
-Antibiotics: Magnesium supplements may reduce the absorption of quinolones, tetracyclines, and nitrofurantoin. Magnesium should be taken 1 hour before or 2 hours after taking these medicines.
The quinolone and tetracycline antibiotics are:

  • Ciprofloxacin
  • Moxifloxacina
  • Tetracycline
  • Doxycycline

Antihypertensive drugs calcium channel blockers, magnesium may increase the risk of negative side effects (eg dizziness , nausea and water retention ) in pregnant women.
Examples of calcium channel blockers:

  • Anlodipino
  • Diltiazem
  • Felodipina
  • Verapamil

-Medicines for diabetes, magnesium intake present in certain antacid medications may increase the absorption of other medications used to control blood sugar levels.

– Digoxin (Lanoxin), low blood magnesium levels may increase the side effects of digoxin, such as nausea and heart palpitations.
In addition, digoxin may lead to increased renal excretion of magnesium.

– Diuretics, such as furosemide and hydrochlorothiazide may reduce magnesium levels.

-Hormone replacement therapy

Levothyroxine (Eutirox), a medicine used to treat hypothyroidism

-Alendronate (Fosamax), magnesium interferes with the absorption of medications
used for osteoporosis, including alendronate, so magnesium or antacid medications containing magnesium should be taken 1 hour before or 2 hours later.

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