pain in the knee occurs frequently and at any age; There are many reasons for this.
A thorough examination is important in order to assess the origin of the symptoms and to be able to choose the appropriate form of treatment.
1) Bursitis in the knee
Some injuries directly to the knee cause the inflammation of the bursae, which are small sacs filled with fluid that favor the escort movement of tendons and skin on the outside of the knee joint.
The frequent repetition of certain knee movements and constant work on the knees can cause fluid to accumulate in the knee joint, which is called bursitis or “maid’s knee”.
2) Inflammation of the Hoffa fat body
The Hoffa fat body is a structure in the knee joint that consists of fat and lies under the kneecap, just behind the kneecap ligament (McCarthey – 2004).
In this position, it has the task of absorbing shocks in the front knee area.
The Hoffasche fat body can become inflamed as a result of direct force on the kneecap (Valtuille et al. – 2002) and become trapped between the articular knuckle of the femur (femoral condyle) and the kneecap.
The pain increases with knee extension.
Patients may suffer from hyperextension of the knee joint, which is also known as the hollow knee or genu recurvatum.
- Pain and swelling under the kneecap.
- Positive Hoffa test: the patient lies on his back with his legs bent; the examiner presses with both thumbs along the sides of the kneecap ligament while the patient stretches the leg.
If the patient is in pain, this is a positive sign of inflammation of the Hoffa fat body.
The most suitable method of examination for diagnosing this disorder is magnetic resonance. Patients with edema (swelling) or abnormalities of the Hoffa fat body often show symptoms. Nevertheless, edema and structural abnormalities may also be present in patients who have no pain or other symptoms (Draghi et al. – 2016).
- Be quiet.
- avoiding physical activities that aggravate the situation, such as running; there is nothing wrong with cycling.
- Ice or cold therapy to relieve pain and inflammation.
- Physical physiotherapy, such as laser or Tecar therapy.
If the prescribed treatment is followed, the healing times are about 2 weeks.
3) Dislocation of the kneecap (patella)
This common injury is caused by direct force or violent extension of the leg, as often happens in tennis or volleyball.
Women, overweight people and jockeys are increasingly affected by kneecap luxation.
Signs and symptoms: During the injury, the kneecap (patella) pops out of its seat, the knee is swollen and hurts.
Treatment: The doctor relocates the kneecap (reposition).
Even if the kneecap returns to its normal position on its own, an X-ray examination must be performed to determine if there is a fracture.
If the kneecap is dislocated and there is no fracture, the knee joint is immobilized for three weeks in a knee brace so that the soft tissue structures surrounding the patella can heal. Subsequently, strengthening exercises must be performed to keep the kneecap in its position.
Recovery times are 30-40 days.
4) Patellofemoral pain syndrome
Patellofemoral pain syndrome is a general term for pain between the kneecap (patella) and femur, at the front of the joint.
Patellofemoral pain syndrome is often noticeable in athletes, especially in young people whose kneecap is not correctly aligned with the femurs.
The kneecap is usually shifted outwards, causing increased cartilage wear on one side.
This condition is a common cause of a painful and swollen knee and affects adolescents, especially if they walk a lot and play football, basketball or volleyball.
Osgood-Schlatter’s disease causes swelling and numbness at the bone protrusion just below the kneecap.
6) Chondromalazia patellae
This cartilage disease of the kneecap consists of a thinning of the cartilage layer on the back of the kneecap (patella).
It is a common cause of deep-seated pain and stiffness in the knee joint.
The symptoms become noticeable after sitting for a long time, when walking, climbing stairs and cycling on the ascent.
Treatment initially includes nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as diclofenac (Voltaren®), ice packs and rest.
In the longer term, strengthening exercises should be performed for the quadriceps muscle located in the front of the thigh.
7) Jumper’s knee
Tendinitis of the kneecap tendon (also called Springer’s knee) is a degeneration and inflammatory process of the kneecap tendon that connects the quadriceps at the front of the thigh to the shin.
Tendons are fiber strands that connect muscles and bones.
Runners, skiers, cyclists and athletes who practice jumping sports are prone to this tendinitis.
Arthritis is the inflammation of one or more joints.
The main symptoms are:
- diffuse knee pain, especially on the inside and front;
Any joint can be affected by arthritis, but the knee is particularly vulnerable.
Arthritis in the knee joint makes many everyday activities problematic, such as walking or climbing stairs.
For many people, it can mean a severe disability.
- Fracture of the patella or kneecap fracture
- Pain in the knee on the outside
- Pain on the knee on the inside