Kidney stones in the urinary system are formed when urine calcium binds to chemicals like oxalate or phosphorus. 
This can happen if the concentration of these substances in the urine is very high and therefore can solidify. 
In addition, there are:

  1. Some factors that favor the formation of stones,
  2. Some elements that prevent this disorder.

Kidney stones can also be caused by an accumulation of uric acid . 
Uric acid is derived from the metabolism of proteins. 
Fortunately, a diet modification can help prevent the formation or recurrence of kidney stones.

A visit to the dietitian or nutritionist allows you to create a personalized diet because a patient may have other illnesses besides kidney stones.

 


Kidney Stones of Calcium Oxalate

Usually the body excretes excess calcium with feces, urine, and sweat. 
Sometimes calcium overload can cause kidney stones. 
However, it is necessary to eat moderately calcium-rich foods because this is an important compound for other bodily functions.

When the calcium oxalate concentration is very high, if the urine volume is low and the calcium level is high, the calculations begin to form. 
The citrate in the urine and calcium form a complex that dissolves in urine. 
When the citrate binds to calcium, it prevents the binding between calcium and oxalate, thus preventing solidification.

diet rich in citrate (based on fruits and vegetables) can increase urine pH and citrate excretion. 
The potassium contained in fruits and vegetables stimulates the production of citrate. 
However, citrate may increase the risk of phosphorus stones. 
citrate deficiency can be caused by:

  1. Chronic diarrhea ,
  2. Lack of potassium.

Among the causes of a high level of oxalate in urine are:

  1. A diet with large amounts of oxalate,
  2. Intake of vitamin C supplements (> 1,000 mg / day).

Vitamin C and Kidney Stones
Vitamin C is metabolized (transformed) into dehydroascorbic acid, then converted to oxalate. 
Thus, a diet rich in vitamin C may be a risk for the formation of stones as it increases the oxalate in the body.

A low oxalate diet is recommended for the prevention of stones, however, a scientific study has shown that food oxalate has little effect on urinary excretion of oxalate, while vitamin C intake is closely linked to urinary oxalate excretion. 
Source : Determinants of 24-hour urinary oxalate excretion – Taylor EN, Curhan GC – Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2008 Sep; 3 (5): 1453-60.

Are you pH with urine?

  • For low – urine is an ideal environment for the formation of calcium oxalate calculi and uric acid,
  • For high urine favors the formation of calcium phosphate stones.

If urine pH is> 6.5 (alkaline), phosphate formation is possible.

An infection can alter pH and citrate levels.

 

Sodium and soluble fiber

High levels of sodium in the body favor the formation of calcium or calcium oxalate stones in the body. 
People should avoid large doses of sugar and reduce excessive consumption of processed / pre-packaged foods. 
The ideal amount of sodium that the body should absorb is between 1500-2300 mg / day (Source: Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics).

  1. The soluble fiber  (contained, for example, in fruits and vegetables) promotes the passage of calcium through the gut quickly to avoid excessive absorption body.
  2. Instead, the insoluble fiber  (permatem perioemi cereali integrali) binds to excess calcium as it passes through the faeces and in this case the kidneys can not absorb it.

Reduction of oxalate to treat kidney stones Kidney
stones of calcium oxalate are the most common.

Some research shows that by reducing foods high in oxalate, the chances of new stones are lower. However, many foods that are high in oxalate are healthy, so it is better to eat those with lower that mineral content. 
Most kidney stones occur when oxalate binds to calcium, while the kidneys produce urine.

People with this problem should reduce their intake of calcium oxalate and increase calcium intake slightly. 
There are no foods that can dissolve existing stones, but food can prevent deterioration of the situation.

The dietary principles for avoiding the formation of calcium oxalate stones are:

  • Cooking without salt,
  • Reduce or eliminate sugars from food,
  • Eat few animal proteins, about 1 gram per kilogram of body weight.

Uric acid stones

These stones occur in people who suffer from excess uric acid in the urine. 
About 15-20% of patients with uric acid stones suffered from gout. 
A diet rich in animal protein causes the formation of purines during digestion and may increase the risk of formation of uric acid stones. 
If urinary pH is less than 5.5, uric acid is not very soluble but dissolves if the pH is above 6.5. 
Source : Nutritional Management of Kidney Stones (Nephrolithiasis) – Haewook Han et al .

The level of calcium in the urine increases in the case of a rich diet:

  • Eem sodium,
  • In proteins (> 2.0 g / kg / d).

An excess of protein in the diet also causes:

  1. Decreased urine pH,
  2. Increased uric acid level.

List of foods that cause kidney stones

Kidney stones may consist of:

  1. Calcium oxalate,
  2. Uric acid,
  3. Cistina,
  4. Struvite ( magnesium , ammonia and phosphate).

Foods rich in calcium oxalate

  • Chocolate,
  • Sweet potato
  • Chard
  • Green beet
  • Spinach
  • Beet
  • Given knor
  • Eggplant
  • Bean
  • Dark green leafy vegetables
  • further
  • Celery
  • Wheat germ
  • Cabbage
  • Rhubarb
  • Salsa
  • Legumes
  • Buckwheat
  • Wheat bran
  • Dried figs
  • Blackcurrant
  • White corn
  • Pumpkin
  • Soy products (tofu, tempeh, soy flour, soy milk, soy nuts, soy yogurt)
  • Amaranth
  • Whole Wheat Flour
  • Black tea
  • Café
  • Nuts (hazelnuts, walnuts, peanuts, pistachios, almonds).

There are no forbidden or harmful foods, but those who suffer from stones should eat a smaller amount of certain foods.

Many foods contain oxalate, but some increase the excretion of this mineral with urine. 
Among them are:

  • Fruits such as raspberries, figs and plums;
  • Vegetables such as spinach, rhubarb and beets;
  • Most walnuts
  • Tea,
  • Wheat bran,
  • Chocolate,
  • High amounts of vitamin C

Foods that promote the formation of uric acid stones

  1. Red meat,
  2. Viscera of animals,
  3. Seafood,
  4. Anchovy,
  5. Herring,
  6. Sweeteners,
  7. Alcohol

 


Why is lemon juice used for kidney stones?

Lemon juice is mainly composed of water, citric acid and phosphoric acid. 
Lemon has the highest citrate content compared to other citrus fruits. 
Citrate is a chemical that decreases the acidity of urine and prevents the formation of kidney stones. 
Therefore, increased levels of citrate prevent the growth of kidney stones and reduce the risk of new deposits.

 

What to eat? Poor diet in oxalate for kidney stones

Taylor et al. analyzed the 24-hour urine in patients who followed the antihypertensive diet (DASH) and found that the risk of calculus formation was reduced. 
Source : DASH-style diet associates with reduced risk for kidney stones – Taylor EN, Fung TT, Curhan GC – J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009 Oct; 20 (10): 2253-9.

This diet is rich in potassium, magnesium and phosphorus that can increase the pH of urine. 
The consequences are:

  1. Decreased calcium oxalate and uric acid in the urine,
  2. An increase in urine volume and citrate level.

Calcium in food and kidney stones
About 20% of dietary calcium is absorbed by the body under normal conditions. 
In the intestine, calcium binds to oxalate and reduces its absorption. 
Scientific studies have shown that a diet rich in calcium (about 1,200 mg / day) and low in animal protein reduces the risk of recurrence of the stones by 51% compared to a diet low in calcium (about 400 mg / day ). 
Foods rich in oxalate should be ingested along with foods rich in calcium to reduce the absorption of oxalate.

Foods rich in calcium

  • Sardines
  • Herring
  • Dark green leafy vegetables
  • Cheese (like mozzarella, provolone)
  • Broccoli
  • Oatmeal flour
  • Fortified cereals
  • Tofu
  • Seeds of soybeans
  • milk
  • Yogurt
  • Brazil nuts
  • Molasses
  • Flax Seeds
  • Fortified fruit juices
  • Sesame seeds
  • Enriched refined cereals (bread, waffles, pancakes).

 

Magnesium in diet and kidney stones
The magnesium complexes with oxalate and reduces calcium oxalate saturation in urine. 
The consequence is the reduced risk of developing kidney stones.

Magnesium can also bind to the oxalate in the gastrointestinal system to reduce its absorption. 
However, a magnesium supplement is not recommended, particularly in patients with chronic kidney disease , because in this case magnesium accumulates in the blood in advanced kidney disease.

Dairy
products Dairy products have low levels of oxalate. 
Among the dairy foods are:

  1. milk
  2. Whey
  3. Low-fat yogurt
  4. Cheese.

However, according to the blood type diet (a natural diet that has allowed many people to heal from various diseases), milk and dairy products are the cause of kidney stones in about 70% of cases.

Vegetables
People with kidney stones may put these legumes or vegetables in their food:

  • Frozen peas
  • Peeled cucumber
  • White cabbage
  • Zucchini
  • Alfalfa sprouts.

Meat, fish and eggs
The sardines contain large amounts of oxalate and this fish can not be eaten to avoid kidney stones. 
Among the meats you can choose from are:

  • Chicken meat (lean)
  • Lamb
  • Peru

Sweets
In this diet have been placed certain restrictions on the amount of cakes you can eat. 
You should avoid bakery products like cakes and sweets, as they have high levels of oxalate. 
Among the low-calcium-oxalate desserts are:

  • Fruit jelly
  • Gelatine
  • Mel
  • Pure maple syrup.

They should be consumed in limited quantities (no more than 1 tbsp). 
It is also necessary to avoid chocolate because the analysis of a sample of bitter chocolate and cocoa powder showed the high content of calcium oxalate.

Fruit
There are many fruits that you can choose from with a low content of calcium oxalate. Some are listed below:

  • Watermelon
  • Melon
  • Manga
  • Papaya
  • grapes
  • Peeled apple
  • Plum.

Aromas
There are many herbs that can be added to the dishes, for example: 
1. Ginger 
2. Cinnamon 
3. Basil 
4. Pepper 
5. Sage 
6. Mint 
7. Paprika.

 


Water and kidney stones

After expulsion, kidney stones can easily recur. So we recommend to change the diet.

It is necessary to drink a lot of liquid. When you drink less or too little, the urine stays in the body, becomes concentrated (saturated with minerals) and acid and increases the risk of kidney stones. 
The amount of liquid in the body should be sufficient to dissolve the minerals in the urine . 
Whoever drinks an adequate amount of fluids reduces the risk of kidney stones. Therefore, it is advisable to drink a lot, but not much. A diet rich in vegetables allows you to ingest as much liquid as fruits and vegetables contain lots of water, little sodium and lots of potassium.

Which water to choose? 
We recommend changing the type of water you drink to avoid taking too much of certain minerals. 
It is best to avoid water containing too much sodium.

How much water do you need to drink? 
There is no ideal amount, it depends on the sweating and the amount of fruits and vegetables you eat.

Is it possible to drink sparkling water? 
Yes, it does not affect the kidney stones.

Drinks and Alcohol
Beer contains many purines and therefore promotes the formation of uric acid stones. 
In addition, all alcoholic beverages should be avoided because they may increase the excretion of uric acid in the urine. 
Black tea and coca cola increase the risk of calcium oxalate stones.

 


Proper nutrition for people suffering from kidney stones

Menu example by day of the week for patients suffering from kidney stones

Breakfast
1 Fruit (eg melon) 
Some nuts or hazelnuts 
1 boiled egg 
1 glass of water

Lunch
2 leaves lettuce, 1 small tomato, 
½ cup cucumber salad with olive oil and vinegar 
150g legumes (chickpeas, lentils, peas or beans) 
1 glass of water

Dinner
100g roasted salmon 
One carrot 
1 cup salad with olive oil 
½ cup fresh pear jam 
1 cup water

Snack
½ cup orange juice


Natural Remedies

The easiest and most convenient remedy for kidney stones is a hot water bottle that can give a little relief, but obviously this does not solve the problem.


Useful herbs for detoxification of the kidneys

Horsetail
It is a herb useful for expelling toxins from the kidneys because it has a high content of silica. 
In addition, in the genito-urinary tract it has a diuretic action. 
Increasing urine volume helps cleanse the body of toxins and other irritants. 
Tissue repair is allowed by high levels of silica and astringent qualities improve bladder tone.

Bear
Grape Bear Grape is an effective remedy for bladder and urinary tract infections (UTIs). This herb is rich in arbutin and hydroquinone which make it an effective antibacterial substance. 
Many urinary infections are cured by this herb. 
There is also tannin, an astringent, that reduces inflammation and avoids infections . 
When taken orally, it passes through the urinary tract and rid the kidneys of toxins.

Grass-shorts
The Bermuda grass is a diuretic that promotes the elimination of excess minerals. 
It also helps heal the urinary tract. 
It also has a natural antibiotic effect: Combat and cure nephritis , cystitis , prostatitis , inflammation of the urethra and diseases of the urinary tract.

Nettle
This herb helps in the elimination of toxins. Nettle is very nutritious and contains a lot of chlorophyll, beta-carotene and vitamins A, B2, C, E, calcium, potassium and iron. 
This herb is used to eliminate uric acid in urine. 
Nettle is also a diuretic that has beneficial effects.

Salsa
The salsa used to decorate a dish is a powerful detoxifying substance that helps release the body from toxins such as urea. 
It also helps reduce edema (swelling) and the occurrence of kidney stones due to diuretic properties.

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