Ocular hypertension means that the pressure inside the eyes is greater than normal.

If no appropriate treatment is given, the consequences may be:

However, some people may have ocular hypertension without developing eye lesions or vision problems. 
Researchers believe that ocular hypertension increases 10 to 15 times the probability of having primary open-angle glaucoma, the most common type of glaucoma.

 


Measuring eye pressure

Eye pressure is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg). 
The ideal values ​​are between a minimum of 10 and a maximum  of 21 mm Hg. 
An eye pressure value greater than or equal to 22 mm HG is considered to be above normal. 
If the value is high, and the person does not show signs of glaucoma, it is only spoken of ocular hypertension.

 

What are the causes of high eye pressure?

1. Excessive liquid production . The liquid (aqueous humor) is a clear fluid produced by the ciliary body, which is a structure behind the iris. 
The fluid flows through the pupil and fills the anterior chamber of the eye, that is, the space between the iris and the cornea. 
If the ciliary body produces too much fluid, it increases the pressure in the eye causing ocular hypertension.

 

 

2. Insufficient fluid drainage . If the liquid is discharged too slowly from the eye, thus interrupting the normal balance between production and drainage, the consequence is an increase in eye pressure.

3. Some medications may have the side effect of causing ocular hypertension in some individuals. 
The steroids  are drugs used to treat  asthma and other diseases, scientific studies have shown that increase the risk of ocular hypertension.

Eye drops with cortisone used after laser surgery with LASIK or other refractive surgery can cause high ocular pressure in susceptible individuals. 
If cortisone has been prescribed for any reason, consult your ophthalmologist to see how often eye pressure should be measured.

4. Eye trauma . A wound in the eye can alter the balance of aqueous production and drainage of the eye, leading to ocular hypertension. 
Sometimes it can occur months or years after the injury. 
During routine eye exams, talk with your doctor about recent or past trauma.

5. Children may have congenital (acquired before birth) changes in the eye that cause high blood pressure, swollen and darker eye . This disorder is called the “bull’s eye”.

6. Other diseases of the eye . Ocular hypertension can be caused by other ocular pathologies, including: the pseudoexfoliation syndrome.

 

 

High Blood Pressure Risk Factors:

Some possible causes of ocular hypertension are:

 

How do I know if I have ocular hypertension?

It can not be said if someone has ocular hypertension because there is :

During a complete eye exam, the ophthalmologist will measure the intraocular pressure (IOP) by  comparing it with normal levels.

Pressure variation during the day
The ocular pressure depends on:

  • Of the time of day,
  • From the position of the head to the body: it is larger in the supine position (lying on its belly upwards) than when standing or sitting.

The diurnal variation of intraocular pressure is a personal data, but a healthy eye can vary between 2 and 6 mm Hg. 
The differences are greater in the case of ocular hypertension or glaucoma. 
The ocular pressure values ​​are:

  • Larger in the morning, between 08:00 and 11:00 in the morning, especially immediately after you have walked.
  • During the day, smaller, reaching minimum values ​​at night (between midnight and 2:00 p.m.)

However, this is only valid for 80% of people, the others may have higher values ​​at night or reach 2 peaks per day. 
Once you have checked if the values ​​are lower at night, just measure the morning values.

 

Symptoms of high blood pressure

Usually this disorder is asymptomatic (no symptoms), but in the advanced stages it can cause:

  • Halos,
  • Blurred vision,
  • Pain,
  • Heavy eyes,
  • Headache ,
  • Narrowing of the visual field,
  • The intraocular pressure increases and continues to increase.

 

Diagnosis and exams for ocular pressure

The ophthalmologist performs tests to measure intraocular pressure to exclude an initial primary or secondary open angle glaucoma.

The ophthalmologist should examine the front of the eye:

  • Cornea,
  • Anterior chamber of the eye,
  • Iris,
  • Crystalline.

The examination is done with a special microscope called a slit lamp.

 

How do you measure eye pressure?

The tonometry is a method used to measure the internal pressure of the eye.

You need to measure in both eyes at least 2-3 times. 
Since intraocular pressure varies from hour to hour in any individual, measurements can be taken at different times of the day (eg, morning and evening). 
A pressure difference between two eyes of 3mm Hg or higher may indicate glaucoma. 
Primary open-angle glaucoma is very likely if the intraocular pressure increases steadily.

 

Optic nerve analysis
Each optic nerve is checked for damage or anomalies. 
The examination is done with dilated pupils to better analyze the optic nerves. Images of the ocular fundus and the optic disc (the frontal surface of the optic nerve) should be retained for comparison in the future.

The pachymetry is a test which measures the corneal thickness with an ultrasonic probe to determine the accuracy of intraocular pressure data. 
A patient with a thin cornea may have a false low pressure, while another with a thick cornea may be false.

 

What to do? Treatment for high blood pressure

The goal of treatment is to reduce pressure before it causes vision loss. 
Treatment begins when it is believed that the patient has a greater risk of developing glaucoma and for those who have signs of damage to the optic nerve. 
The ophthalmologist decides when to start treatment based on the patient’s personal situation. 
You can start prescribing  medications or keeping the patient under  observation .

Some ophthalmologists treat eye pressure above 21 mmHg with topical medications. 
Others do not prescribe any treatment if there is no damage to the optic nerve .

 


When to worry about high blood pressure?

Most eye specialists recommend treatment if the pressure is consistently above 28-30 mmHg because of the high risk of damaging the optic nerve. 
“The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence” (NICE) has developed guidelines to help ophthalmologists evaluate the potential benefits of treatment for ocular hypertension.

It is necessary to go to the emergency room when the patient presents the following symptoms, which may indicate an acute glaucoma attack:

 

Natural Remedies and High Blood Pressure Diet

The Feeding correct ntação is the most effective remedy to cure diseases naturally; the diets that give the best results are:

The  blood type diet , which advises against:

1. Cereals (especially with gluten, such as wheat, spelled, barley, etc.), 
2. Sweets, 
3. Cookies, cookies and biscuits.

According to the blood type of each person, there are foods allowed and others to be avoided.

The vegan / crudivorous diet recommended by natural doctors and hygienists is based on raw fruits and vegetables, especially green leafy vegetables such as lettuce and chard.

Both types of diet  advise:

1. Vegetables, 
2. Nuts and seeds (avoiding overeating)

Food to be avoided according to the blood type and hygienist diet are:

  • Fried food,
  • Smoked,
  • Pork,
  • Pizza,
  • Food suplements,
  • Processed foods,
  • Chewing gum.

Antioxidants
Cells produce free radicals as byproducts during normal cellular activity. 
Stress and environmental toxins, such as tobacco smoke and radiation, are other factors that cause the production of free radicals.

Structurally, free radicals are unstable molecules that lack an electron (the element that makes up the molecule). 
To return to equilibrium, they try to draw electrons from other molecules. 
The problem is that other molecules to function properly can not give their electrons, so free radicals can damage the cells in which they are. 
The consequence is the possible development of several diseases, among which:

  • Cancer,
  • Premature signs of aging,
  • Cataract ,
  • Obesity,
  • Mood disorders,
  • Memory disorders .

Free radicals can damage the axons of retinal nerve cells.

The antioxidants stabilize free radicals , making them less reactive and thus should not be able to cause disease.

The antioxidant foods that should be included in the diet are:

  • Vitamins A, C and E ;
  • Selenium ,
  • Polyphenols – found in many foods such as:
    • Red wine,
    • Rome,
    • Acai berries,
    • Mirtilos,
    • Black chocolate,
    • Black tea and green tea,
  • Anthocyanins (found in blueberry),
  • Lycopene (not tomato),
  • Lutein (dark green leafy vegetables such as spinach and cabbage)
  • Lignans (flaxseed, linseed oil and some grains).

Capsaicin, the active ingredient in chilli pepper, has been shown to effectively dilate blood vessels and reduce high blood pressure . 
The consumption of chilli pepper has been shown to improve circulation in the heart of men.

If the blood insulin values ​​increase, so does the pressure inside the eye. 
To keep insulin under control, you need to eat less sugar and carbohydrates, and follow the diabetic diet .

Regular exercise improves circulation and reduces the level of insulin in the blood.

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