The female hormones are chemical substances that are released from a woman’s body cells and affect other areas of the body.
Cellular metabolism is influenced or altered by the presence of very small amounts of hormones.
The anatomical differences between the male and female body are due to hormones.
Normal values of female hormones
Estrogen and estradiol
Estrogens are the predominant female hormones; Estradiol is the main type of estrogen produced in the ovaries or ovaries (female reproductive organs). During the second or third day of the menstrual cycle, normal estrogen levels are 25 and 75 picograms per milliliter (pg/ml).
Too high levels of these gonadal hormones during the second or third day can indicate perimenopause, a period when the supply of eggs in the body runs out.
After 40 years, the period of premenopause begins, which is characterized by a continued decrease in the amount of estrogen.
is mainly produced by the corpus luteum, the follicle residue that contained the egg released from the ovary.
The reference values of progesterone are less than 1.5 nanograms per milliliter (ng/ml) before ovulation and increase to more than 15 ng/ml after ovulation.
Luteinizing hormone (LH) Luteinizing hormone is elevated immediately after the release of an egg from the ovary.
Basal level is less than 7 international units per liter (IU/L) during the third day of the cycle and hormone levels increase to 20 IU/L or more upon egg maturation and egg release from the ovary.
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
FSH is produced in the ovaries and stimulates egg maturation. During the second or third day, FSH levels should be below 9 international milliunits per milliliter (ImE/ml).
At high FSH levels, the woman may be in perimenopause and a level above 40 ImU/ml means that a woman is in menopause. The FSH levels show the woman’s potential ability to become pregnant.
Relaxin The hormone relaxin
is produced during pregnancy to increase the elasticity of joints and ligaments. Thus, the pelvis can expand to allow the birth of the child.
What is the function of female sex hormones?
– They stimulate the growth of breast tissue.
– You get suppleness and blood flow to the vagina.
– They cause the thickening of the uterine lining during the menstrual cycle.
– They keep the vaginal walls elastic.
– They promote hair growth.
– They have many other functions, including bone preservation.
Prepares the uterine lining for a fertilized egg and helps to maintain the beginning of pregnancy.
Although it is known as a “male” hormone, testosterone is also important for the sexual life of women:
– It has a key role in the production of female estrogens.
– It contributes to libido.
– It can help maintain bone density and muscle mass.
How do menopause and old age affect female hormones?
During perimenopause, levels fluctuate and become unpredictable. In the end, production drops to a very low level.
production is stopped when ovulation stops taking place and after the last menstrual cycle.
– Levels peak during a woman’s first 20 years of life and slowly drop thereafter. Until menopause, they retain their average value.
– The ovaries continue to produce testosterone, even if the production of estrogen has already stopped.
– Adrenal testosterone production decreases with aging, but continues after menopause.
Changes in female hormones during the cycle
First week During this cycle week
, the decreased estrogens begin with a constant increase. Once the menstrual pain has passed, this increase in estrogen increases energy and improves mood, optimism, and brain activity. In addition, the women become more talkative and have the need to exchange ideas with others both socially and emotionally.
The increase in estrogens has a slight effect on reducing appetite, so much smaller portions are consumed and healthier foods are chosen in this and the following cycle week. When estrogen levels rise, you usually feel more like getting to know the world, having fun, shopping, and spending time away from home and other people.
Second week Estrogen levels continue to increase in the second week, amplifying all the positive effects that occur as early as the first week
Thus, it is likely that the woman will become much more optimistic, friendly and trusting, with a much more alert memory, also she will manage to think faster and fall in love.
The sex drive is much higher in the fertile phase of a woman, that is, between the onset of menstruation and ovulation.
The high hormone level increases self-confidence regarding physical aspects. Estrogens increase attractiveness because they cause subtle changes in facial features that make them appear slightly more symmetrical.
High estrogen levels also increase the production of endorphins, which mask pain in the brain. This means that painful activities (such as dental treatment or wearing new shoes) cause less pain this week than in others.
A high concentration of estrogen has various benefits, but there is also a negative side to knowing about: anxiety can be amplified, causing the woman to worry excessively about big and small things.
Another key hormone during the second week is testosterone, which increases at the end of the second week. Then it increases impulsivity, daring and competition. In addition, it increases libido to its peak.
Third week (from the 15th to the 22nd day for a cycle of 28 days)
The first half of the third week is called the premenstrual phase. The symptoms are less pronounced than in premenstrual syndrome (PMS), the woman complains of complaints such as irritability, fatigue and depressive mood.
Premenstrual syndrome is also caused by a drastic decrease in estrogens. While most young women are aware that estrogens drop drastically during the cycle (in the days leading up to each period), there are actually two types of estrogens.
Fortunately, estrogen still rises in the second half of the third week, thereby interrupting all distressing premenstrual symptoms, which helps improve mood.
Fourth week decrease in estrogen and progesterone
The drop in estrogens during this premenstrual week
causes mood swings that lead to sadness. In addition, muscle pain, insomnia, headaches, fatigue and other symptoms of premenstrual syndrome occur, such as fluid retention, breast enlargement, pimples on the face, sensitivity to pain and cravings for sweets (leading to weight gain).
Not all women suffer from premenstrual syndrome and the symptoms can be milder or more severe from month to month, often due to diet, stress, medication, physical training or personal sensitivity of the body to hormones.
What hormones make a man grow female breasts?
Breasts can grow in response to estrogen supplements. Estrogen substitution therapy can cause breast swelling and softness similar to premenstrual phase or pregnancy. Plant supplements such as saw palmetto or wild yam (which contains plant estrogens) can produce a similar effect. In both cases, the breast returns to its initial size when estrogens or plant estrogens are no longer taken.
Foods that act like female hormones?
Some foods contain a lot of the hormone called phytoestrogen, a weakened form of the female hormone.
Phytoestrogens in foods can produce a similar effect to estrogens and can help prevent cancer and osteoporosis.
These foods may be part of a treatment for menopause symptoms.
• Soy products
• Seeds and nuts • Whole grains
• Vegetarian foods such as fruits and vegetables
Hormone replacement therapy — drugs that contain female hormones to replace those that the body stops producing after menopause — used to be a standard therapy for women with hot flashes and other symptoms of menopause. Hormone therapy is designed for long-term benefits and to prevent heart disease and possibly dementia.
What are the benefits of hormone therapy?
Hormone therapy consists of systemic hormone administration or vaginal products in low estrogen dosage.
- Systemic hormone therapy. Systemic estrogens (given in the form of pills, patches, gels, creams or sprays) are the most effective treatment for the annoying hot flashes and night sweats typical of menopause. Estrogens can also improve vaginal symptoms of menopause, such as dryness, itching, burning, and pain during intercourse.
Although the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approves estrogens to prevent osteoporosis (a disease in which bone density decreases), doctors usually recommend medications called bisphosphonates to treat this disorder.
- Low-dose estrogen-containing vaginal products (they come in the form of creams, tablets, or as a ring) can effectively treat vaginal symptoms and some urinary problems by minimizing absorption in the body. Vaginal products with a low dose of estrogen do not help with hot flashes, night sweats, or as protection against osteoporosis.
Long-term systemic hormone therapy to prevent post-menopausal conditions is no longer recommended.
What are the risks of hormone therapy?
According to the largest scientific study to date, a pill that combines estrogen progestin (Filena ®) increases the risk of serious conditions, including:
– Heart disease
– Stroke – Deep vein thrombosis
– Breast cancer