However, changes in urine color can often be caused by several minor factors, such as:

  • Dehydration ,
  • Certain medications,
  • Ingestion of certain foods.

Urine is a liquid that can be pale yellow or colorless.

It basically contains water and water-soluble waste products that are produced by normal cellular activity.

Urine contains mainly:

  • Nitrogen compounds such as urea, uric acid and creatinine,
  • A small amount of mineral salts,
  • Enzymes .


The kidneys filter the blood to extract these wastes that are expelled from the body along with the water. 
The ureters carry urine that forms in the kidneys to the urinary bladder that holds this fluid until it is expelled through the urethra.

Urine has a pale yellow color because it contains urochrome, a substance produced during the degradation of hemoglobin . 
Hemoglobin is a red blood cell protein that binds to oxygen to carry it to the tissues of the body.


Urine Colors and Causes

Dark brown urine

A person may have dark brown urine if they take certain medications, such as:

  • Antimalarial drugs
  • Medicines that treat a infection of the urinary tract
  • Laxatives that contain sacred husk and sena
  • The  antibiotics metronidazole and nitrofurantoin
  • Some muscle relaxers.


  • A person who has a liver disease like hepatitis or cirrhosis can expel dark brown urine.
  • A kidney disease known as acute glomerulonephritis (which makes it difficult to remove excess waste and fluids from the body) is another cause of brown urine.
  • If dark urine appears along with light or white stools , the patient may have stones in the gallbladder (cholelithiasis).
  • Porphyria , a group of hereditary diseases characterized by the accumulation of profirina, that is, a protein fundamental for the production of hemoglobin.
  • Melanoma , a type of skin cancer that can carry melanin into the bloodstream. Melanin is a pigment that leaves the skin dark. From the blood, this pigment can enter the urine, causing brown or almost black urine.
  • Bilirubin:  If part of the excess bilirubin enters the urine, the urine may become brown. The  anemia hemolytic occurs when too many red blood cells are broken down at the same time. Among the consequences is the production of an excess of bilirubin that can contaminate the urine.

Extreme Exercise – Muscle injuries caused by excessive physical activity can cause pink or Coke-like urine and kidney problems.

Food – Eating large amounts of fava beans, rhubarb or slug can cause dark brown urine.

Urine orange or dark yellow

An excessive intake of foods rich in carotene (such as orange juice and carrot) can make the urine orange. Taking B-complex vitamins is another reason for dark urine. 
In this case, the urine is dark yellow.

Drinking little
The lack of fluids causes the concentration of urochrome, making the urine orange or yellow. 
Therefore, dehydration is another frequent cause of dark yellow urine. 
The gastroenteritis can cause this sign because it causes dehydration.

The color change from urine to dark yellow or orange may be caused by certain medications, such as:

  • Phenazopyridine (to treat a urinary tract infection)
  • Chemotherapeutic Remedies
  • Some laxatives
  • Rifampicin
  • Anticoagulants such as Coumadin.

Among the causes of orange urine are also some liver or biliary disease.


Red or red urine

When you eat foods that have a natural red color (such as beets and blackberries), your urine may have a pink or reddish color.

The urine that turns red can be caused by some diseases, such as:

This is because these diseases cause urinary bleeding , causing the appearance of red blood cells in the urine. Indeed, in children, hematuria (a disease in which blood in the urine is present) is a major cause of red urine.

Some medicines, such as rifampicin (an antibiotic often used to treat tuberculosis ) and laxatives containing sena.


Urine of green or blue color

Green urine may be due to a side effect of medications such as amitriptyline and indomethacin (Indocin). 
It can also occur in people who eat lots of asparagus and food coloring.

Blue urine may be due to “blue diaper syndrome,” also called Drummond syndrome. 
This is a rare disease that changes the color of urine to blue. 
It is an autosomal recessive metabolic disease observed in children. Causes a bluish color in the baby’s diaper.


Pale or pale yellow urine

Clear urine indicates that health is good. The person should continue to eat healthy foods and follow a proper diet.

A colorless urine can indicate diabetes insipidus that causes a significant amount of very dilute urine.

The  diabetes mellitus can cause a symptom known as polyuria or excessive urination. 
This occurs when the blood sugar level is very high . 
The kidneys try to eliminate excess sugar along with much more water than usual.


Dark or cloudy urine

Blurred urine can be caused by an infection, usually from the urinary tract (eg, cystitis ). 
Smelly urine is the confirmation of a urinary tract infection. 
The kidney stones can cause pus in the urine becomes cloudy or dark. 
The gonorrhea causes vaginal discharge or pus formation it reaches the penis. 
This could give a very cloudy appearance to the urine.

In children, blurred urine may be more serious than when it occurs in adults.

Possible causes of dark urine


Dark Purple Urine

Porphyria is a rare disease that affects the nervous system and / or the skin. 
It is a genetic disorder characterized by an accumulation of chemicals in the body called porphyrins. 
One of the many symptoms of this pathology is dark purple urine.


Dark urine during pregnancy

During pregnancy , dark urine often occurs and may not cause serious concern. 
However, it is necessary to inform the doctor about the persistent change in the color of urine.

Reasons for dark urine during pregnancy
As it may indicate a problem, it is recommended to seek a gynecologist if in doubt. 
One of the main reasons for changing the color of urine is dehydration . 
This condition is caused by  vomiting  (especially in the first trimester ) that causes water loss. 
This causes the output of a little urine and concentrated which can have a dark and dense yellow appearance.

If the emission is blurred, it can be caused by a disease called proteinuria . 
The presence of protein molecules that reach the urine can give a darker appearance. 
This condition can be seen in women who are in the second or third trimester of pregnancy.

Getting a urinary tract infection is very common for pregnant women. 
Other symptoms may include a burning sensation during urination and  frequent urination . 
Another common cause is cystitis (or inflammation of the bladder).

The hematuria (urine or blood) is another reason for the dark. 
There is an abnormal increase in the number of red blood cells that are expelled from the body. 
This gives a brown or reddish coloration.

Foods with many phosphates , for example milk and vegetables (such as asparagus and beet). 
The phosphate molecules crystallize and exit through the urine, causing a color change.

Other causes include the presence of a kidney infection or  sexually transmitted diseases such as gonorrhea .


Symptoms of dark urine

If they do not occur in conjunction with other important health problems, they may not be accompanied by other symptoms. 
bad odor may be present due to dehydration, as the nitrogen residues are concentrated in the urine. 
A strong and bad odor may also be present if the cause of dark urine is a urinary tract infection. 
Generally, urinary tract infection is characterized by blurred urine and an unpleasant odor.

Cystitis can cause other symptoms, such as:


Causes of foamy urine

The presence of foamed urine in the toilet can be very frightening. 
However, you do not necessarily need to worry. 
Foaming urine in the morning or any other time may be due to various reasons such as:

Fast urination Foaming
urine can be caused by rapid urination. 
Sometimes, when the person waits to go to the bathroom, collects a large amount of urine into the bladder. 
This can cause a forced urination to emit urine as quickly as possible. 
Therefore, the flow of urine upon beating in the toilet leaves the urine frothy.

Concentrated Urine
When the person drinks little, a concentrated urine is formed which causes foamy urine. 
Concentrated urine also means mild dehydration. 
Foaming urine due to excessive concentration or dehydration is not serious. 
To prevent the formation of blisters, you need to drink plenty of water to moisturize the body.

Presence of semen
The presence of semen in urine expelled by the body may cause foamy urine. 
Normally, after intercourse a small amount of semen remains in the urethra. 
However, this amount is insignificant and can not cause foaming urine. 
On the other hand, in case of retrograde ejaculation (the bladder sphincter is not working properly) the semen is pushed into the urinary bladder during intercourse. 
This can cause foamy urine.

Proteinuria (or the presence of significant amounts of protein in the urine) is one of the most common causes of foamy urine. 
A small amount of protein is naturally excreted in the urine. 
However, when this amount increases, the disease is called proteinuria.

During urination, when urine proteins reach the toilet, foaming urine is produced.

The pregnant woman sometimes does not drink enough water and dehydrates lightly. 
This causes the formation of concentrated urine that causes foamy urine. 
However, foamy urine may also be an indicator of proteinuria during pregnancy. 
The presence of protein in the urine can also be an indicator of preeclampsia , a serious disease.

Medications for Urinary System Infection
When microorganisms reach the urinary tract, they cause an infection of the urinary tract. 
This disease usually affects women.

The drug fenazopyridine for this disorder is another common cause of foamy urine.

Kidney problem
Foam urine is also a symptom of malfunction or kidney damage. 
Because the kidneys are responsible for filtration, an injury to them interferes with the filtration system. 
The kidneys can not function efficiently and the proteins get to the urine instead of getting in the blood. 
These proteins cause foamy urine.


Causes of dark yellow urine in the morning

What causes yellow urine in the morning? The change in urine color indicates some diseases such as jaundice and dehydration. 
People taking acetaminophen have strong night sweats ; this causes the loss of fluids and, therefore, the urine becomes darker.

Dehydration is the most common cause of dark yellow urine in the morning. 
A man who does not drink enough water suffers from this problem, especially after running, sport or an effort. 
The excessive sweating can cause dehydration and dark yellow urine. 
Drinking lots of water is one of the most useful and simple natural remedies.

Consumption of certain foods (eg asparagus and fava beans) can make yellow urine dark. Beet
consumption can give a reddish / purple color to the urine. After consuming blackberries and rhubarb, you may notice a red color in the urine.

Some medications or supplements can cause dark yellow urine in the morning. 
For example, vitamin B supplements and carotene may make yellow urine dark. 
Use of certain medications (such as quinine derivatives and nitrofurantoin) may cause dark yellow or brown urine.

When observing a dark yellow urine that persists for 3-4 days without the intake of medicines and foods that can change the color of urine, it is necessary to seek medical attention immediately. 
Dark yellow urine may be a symptom of:

  • Jaundice
  • Cirrhosis
  • Other diseases of the liver
  • Cystitis
  • Urinary tract infection.

During pregnancy, the reason for dark urine may be dehydration due to  morning nausea , cystitis or urinary tract infection. Dark urine is also a symptom of acute renal failure .

The hemolytic anemia can be another cause of dark colored urine. 
In hemolytic anemia, an abnormal collapse of the red blood cells causes them to be expelled through the urine.

The hematuria (secretion of red blood cells in the urine, which causes a dark or reddish yellow color) may be due to kidney stones, urinary tract and gall stones.

Yellow urine may be caused by a kidney infection and copper poisoning. 
Urine can become dark yellow due to serious diseases like malignant melanoma , skin cancer or other types of cancer.

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