Contraceptive methods: know the main and the advantages

Contraceptive methods are important allies when it comes to preventing unwanted pregnancies. Fortunately, thanks to medical advances, today there are several options to choose from, some of which should only be used with the guidance of a specialist doctor.

To learn more about all these methods, we created an article with everything you need to know about the main ones that are available today. Check out

To avoid unwanted pregnancies, you need to use a contraceptive method.


What are contraceptive methods?

Having a son or daughter is the dream of many people, but for this, it is essential that pregnancy occurs after family planning. This is because a child demands a lot of time from the parents and also generates a lot of expenses.

Therefore, it is very important to use contraceptive methods, that is, some techniques used to prevent unwanted pregnancies.

What are the main contraceptive methods?

Currently, there are several contraceptive methods available to prevent unwanted pregnancies. Therefore, it is important that individuals evaluate the pros and cons of each method and also consult a doctor – in the case of women, gynecologists, and for men, urologists.

The choice of the best method must be made by the couple, according to the health conditions of each one and also the period in which they want to avoid pregnancy must be taken into account.

There is also the option of more invasive methods when you do not want to have children. It is important to assess the risks, side effects and effectiveness of each one.

Below are some contraceptive methods used around the world.

Male condom

Also known as a condom, the male condom is a very popular method of birth control. This is because it is quite cheap and simple to use.

Male condoms prevent pregnancy by blocking semen. During intercourse, they block sperm from entering the vagina. In addition to preventing unwanted pregnancies, they also help protect against sexually transmitted diseases, such as HIV .

Male condom.

Female condom

Although less common, female condoms have the same advantages as male condoms. They help prevent pregnancy by preventing sperm from entering the vagina during sexual intercourse. They also protect against sexually transmitted diseases.

They are inserted into the vagina and have flexible rubber rings at each end. One end keeps the condom in the vagina as an anchor and the other end stays out of the vagina during sex.

To use the female condom, it is important to place it in the vagina before intercourse. And you also have to be very careful to remove it and not let the semen leak.

Contraceptive pill

The combined oral contraceptive pill contains female hormones that prevent pregnancy. If the sperm reaches an egg, pregnancy can occur. Contraception tries to prevent this from happening, usually by keeping the egg and sperm separate or by stopping the release of an egg (ovulation).

When used properly, it is quite effective – reaching 99%. Usually, you need to take one pill a day for 21 days and take a break for a week. During this period, menstruation occurs. Then, the pill must be taken again to prevent ovulation. There are also pills that do not need a break.

There are many types of birth control pills available. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out a medical consultation with a gynecologist to carry out exams and decide which is the most suitable for the woman.

Copper IUD

The Intrauterine Device (IUD) is a contraceptive method that acts directly on the uterus. It is a type of flexible plastic molded in the shape of a T that is introduced into the uterus to prevent pregnancy.

The copper IUD is made of plastic and covered with copper. In such cases, the validity period is ten years. The safety of the IUD is over 99%.

Hormonal IUD

Similar to copper IUDs, both in terms of placement and effectiveness, the hormonal IUD releases hormones that make fertilization difficult and the duration is usually around 5 years.

The downside is that they need to be placed by a healthcare professional. And, in some cases, they can cause anemia , as there are small bleeds in the following months. In addition, some women report pain during IUD placement.


Made of rubber and in the shape of a flexible ring, the diaphragm prevents the entry of sperm into the uterus, preventing fertilization of the egg. It can be used several times for up to two years. The advantage is that it does not interfere with the contact as with condoms.

The size of the diaphragm should be appropriate to the size of the cervix and it is important to remove it after a few hours of sexual intercourse to ensure that the sperm have not survived.

Injectable contraceptives

It is an injection every month or every three months in order to prevent the woman’s body from ovulating. It also makes the cervical mucus thicker. All of this prevents pregnancy. It works in a very similar way to the contraceptive pill.


It works similarly to the birth control pill, however, hormones are absorbed through the skin. Its effectiveness is 99%, if used properly. For this, it is important to put the patch on the first day of menstruation and change after a week.

After using three patches, it is necessary to take a break of another week to place another patch.


The contraceptive implant can be applied to the arm, abdomen and buttocks and releases hormones that prevent pregnancy. The size is similar to a matchstick.

For its application, the woman receives local anesthesia in the region and after an incision the implant is placed in the subcutaneous tissue. It is usually performed in a doctor’s office or clinic. It can last up to three years.


It is a permanent procedure to prevent pregnancy in women who no longer want to have children. The tubal ligation blocks the fallopian tubes and prevents the sperm from meeting the egg.

The woman needs to be hospitalized, as the procedure is performed under anesthesia and requires greater recovery.


It is a surgery performed on men who no longer wish to have children. For this, a simple surgical intervention is performed by a urologist.

In the procedure, the doctor makes an incision in the scrotum and blocks the channel that leads the sperm from the testicles to the penis. Thus, they are not released during ejaculation, which prevents pregnancy.

It is usually a very simple and quick recovery surgery. Vasectomy can be reversed if the man changes his mind and wants more children.

Advantages and disadvantages of contraceptive methods

The biggest advantage of using a contraceptive method is being able to plan the family.

Each contraceptive method has advantages and disadvantages. In the case of the birth control pill, some women experience side effects such as swelling and even thrombosis .

Condoms, on the other hand, can give you an allergy or lose their effectiveness if not placed properly. However, nowadays, there are already versions that promise to be hypoallergenic.

Regarding surgeries, there is a risk of complications during the procedure or in the recovery period.

The IUD, on the other hand, can be placed improperly, offer risks to the woman and increase the chances of a pregnancy.

The ideal is to consult with a specialist, to learn more about the advantages and disadvantages of contraceptive methods before opting for one of them.

Natural methods

The natural methods that prevent pregnancies are always used and aim to prevent pregnancy. But, although they are still used by some couples, they are considered less secure and can fail more often.


It is a method that helps to prevent pregnancy when the woman has a regular menstruation. Therefore, she is able to calculate when her fertile period is , that is, when ovulation occurs and there are more chances of a pregnancy.

Therefore, the couple avoids having sex during this period. It is not safe, as the woman may lose her accounts of the fertile period.

Coitus interrupted

This is the removal of the penis from inside the vagina just before ejaculation. This decreases the risk of sperm fertilizing the egg and pregnancy. However, the fluid eliminated before ejaculation can also become pregnant because it contains sperm. In addition, the man may not be able to control himself and ejaculate during intercourse.

Basal body temperature

It is a method that aims to control the temperature of the woman’s body at rest. This is because when ovulation occurs, there is a small rise in temperature. Therefore, some women take the temperature to decrease the chances of getting pregnant.

Ovulation test

Indicates when the woman is ovulating and is most at risk of becoming pregnant. It is easily found in pharmacies and the method warns women to avoid having sex during the period or using a condom.

Lactational amenorrhea method

Women who are breastfeeding and who are not menstruating may be less likely to become pregnant. This method is based on the effect of breastfeeding on fertility. That’s because some women release hormones that prevent ovulation during the first six months postpartum.

Syntothermic method

Use the combination of the table with that of the cervical mucus. Each method tries to estimate when ovulation occurs and thus determine which days the woman is fertile. In such cases, the woman avoids having sex during the period to avoid becoming pregnant.

Cervical mucus method

It is evaluated how the vaginal mucus is, that is, the secretion produced by the cervix and which is expelled through the vagina. In the fertile period, there is an increase in hormones that make the mucus thicker, sticky and whitish like egg white. Therefore, the woman knows she is ovulating and can become pregnant if she has unprotected sex.