The blood tests contain the formula hemogram (or emocitometric examination) that shows the cellular elements in the blood:
- Red blood cells,
- White blood cells,
You do not need the fast for the complete blood count, but for other blood tests it is necessary (especially for blood glucose).
Some laboratories give an interpretation of the results somewhat different from others, so do not consider the absolute value of these numbers.
Here is a list that the doctor read along with typical values.
Normal values: 4 to 10 cells / mcL.
White blood cells help fight infections so a high number of white blood cells may be helpful in identifying an infection.
This can also indicate leukemiawhich can cause an increase in the number of white blood cells.
On the other hand, the lack of white blood cells can be caused by certain medications or diseases.
What can cause low white blood cells?
- Bone marrow diseases,
- Autoimmune diseases,
- Viral infections.
What causes high white blood cells?
Leukocyte formula in the complete blood count
The leukocyte formula is an examination that shows the percentage of different white blood cells that are found in the blood.
Normal reference values:
• Neutrophils from 40% to 60% of the total
• Lymphocytes from 20% to 40%
• Monocytes from 2% to 8%
• Eosinophils from 1% to 4%
• Basophils from 0.5% to 1%.
This test measures:
- The numbers,
- To form,
- The size.
The differential count of leukocytes shows whether the numbers of different cells are in the proper proportion between them.
An anomaly in this test may indicate:
- An infection,
- An inflammation,
- Autoimmune diseases,
- Other diseases.
Low neutrophils in the complete blood count
Neutrophils are the most numerous white blood cells in the blood.
These cells are responsible for protecting the body from infection.
Causes of low neutrophils
Some ethnic groups have fewer neutrophils than the average:
- Yemeni Jews,
- Neutropenia cíclica,
- Severe congenital neutropenia or Kostmann syndrome.
Blood and bone marrow diseases
- Aplastic anemia
- Acute leukemia
Drugs and toxic substance
- Antibiotics and diuretics
Change of organ
- Splenomegaly (enlarged spleen), premature destruction of globules in the spleen
- Deficiencies of vitamins (B12).
- Folic acid,
Symptoms of severe neutropenia (<500 neutrophils per microliter).
The typical symptoms and illnesses that occur in patients with severe neutropenia are:
- Otitis media (ear infection)
- Gingivitis (inflammation of the gingiva)
- Onfaliti (navel infection)
- Skin abscesses
- Severe congenital neutropenia can lead to severe symptoms.
An increase in neutrophils may be due to:
- Acute infection
- Acute stress
- Myeloid leukemia
- Rheumatic fever
- Menstrual cycle
- Damage or tissue necrosis:
Values of red blood cells in the complete blood count
Normal Values: 4.2 to 5.9 Mill / mcL
There are millions of red blood cells (or erythrocytes) in the body, this test measures the number of erythrocytes in a certain amount of blood.
- It helps us determine the total number of red blood cells,
- It gives us an idea of the length of their lives,
- It does not indicate where the problem comes from.
If they are abnormal, the doctor requests other tests.
What is the erythrocyte count?
The red blood cells pick up oxygen from the blood and carry it to the tissues throughout the body
- Male: 4.7-6.1 Mill / mcL
- Woman: 4.0-5.4 Mill / mcL
Why are red globots low?
- Deficiency of iron,
- Deficiency of vitamin B12 or folic acid ,
- Deficiency anemia in the production of red blood cells from diseases of the bone marrow,
- Hemolytic anemia,
- Loss of blood from wounds, internal injuries or heavy periods,
Why are red globots high?
- Dehydration ,
- Kidney problems,
- Congenital heart disease
- Pulmonary disease ( emphysema , COPD)
- High Altitude
- Smoke .
Hematocrit values (Hct) in blood tests
- From 42% to 52% for men;
- From 37% to 48% for women.
Hematocrit is the quotient of
- The volume of red blood cells (erythrocytes),
- O volume do plasma.
What is hematocrit?
Useful for diagnosing anemia , this test determines how much of the total volume of blood in the body is made up of red blood cells (the percentage of red blood cells in the blood).
Causes of low and high hematocrit
The causes of low and high hematocrit are the same as those of red blood cells, as mentioned above.
Elevated hematocrit may also be the consequence of doping, known as erythropoietin (EPO), a substance in the human body that stimulates the production of red blood cells.
Hemoglobin values (Hb) in the complete blood count
- 14-18 g / dL for men;
- 12-16 g / dL for women.
The red blood cells contain hemoglobin that gives the blood a bright red color. Most importantly, hemoglobin carries oxygen from the lungs throughout the body and successively carries the carbon dioxide to be exhaled to the lungs.
Hemoglobin levels in healthy people differ by gender (male or female).
Low levels of hemoglobin may indicate anemia.
What is hemoglobin?
It is a pigmented substance that carries oxygen in the red blood cells.
What does low or high hemoglobin mean ?
Disorders that cause low or high hemoglobin are the same as those listed above for low red blood cells.
Mean corpuscular volume (VCM) in the complete blood count
Normal values: from 82 to 97 femtoliters
This test measures the mean volume of red blood cells or the average amount of space that fills each red blood cell.
An anomaly may indicate:
- Iron deficiency anemia
- Thalassemia or Mediterranean anemia
- Anemia due to a chronic disease
What is MCV?
This value indicates the average size of red blood cells.
What does low MCV mean?
- Iron deficiency
- Hemolytic anemia,
- Aplastic anemia
- Anemia of renal insufficiency ,
- Chronic diseases.
What does high MCV mean?
Deficiency of vitamin B12 or folic acid
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin values (HCM)
Normal Values: 27-31 picograms
What is MCH?
This test measures the average amount of hemoglobin in red blood cells.
Very high results may indicate anemia, while very low results may indicate a nutritional deficiency.
What does the low MCH indicate?
What does the high MCH indicate?
As for the mean corpuscular volume of red blood cells in the blood, it can be caused by a lack of vitamin B12 or folic acid
Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (CHCM)
Normal Values: 32-36%
The CHCM test shows the average concentration of hemoglobin in a specific amount of red blood cells.
The concentration measures the quotient between the weight of the hemoglobin and the volume of the red blood cells it is in.
This indicates anemia if the count is low or dehydration is high.
Range of red blood cells (RDW or RCDW)
Normal Values: 11.5-15.5%
If the percentage is high, it means that most red blood cells have different sizes.
If the value is low, it means that most erythrocytes are the same size.
The high RDW value can refer to:
- Lack of iron, vitamin B12 or folic acid
- Autoimmune or sickle cell hemolytic anemia
- Chronic liver disease.
Normal Values: 150,000 to 400,000 mL
Platelets are small portions of cells needed for blood clotting.
Many or few platelets affect coagulation in different ways.
Platelet counts may indicate a disease.
What is platelet count?
Platelets are cells that are used to close the skin lesions and prevent blood loss.
What is a Low Platelet Count Thrombocytopenia?
- Viral infections,
- Pernicious anemia (vitamin B12 deficiency),
- Rejection of organs.
What do high platelets (thrombocytosis) indicate?
- Myeloproliferative disease (which causes abnormal growth of blood cells in the bone marrow),
- Chronic intestinal inflammatory diseases ( Crohn’s disease ).
Average platelet volume (MPV)
Normal values: 7.4 to 10.4 femtoliters
This test measures the mean platelet size.
A higher value means that the platelets are larger, this is a risk factor for:
- A heart attack,
- Spill .
A lower value indicates smaller platelets means that the person is at risk of bleeding .
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)
The erythrocyte sedimentation rate or erythrocyte sedimentation rate is a blood test that may reveal an inflammation in the body.
An HSV test alone is not good, but it can help the doctor diagnose or monitor the progression of the inflammatory disease.
When the blood is placed in a tall, thin tube, the red blood cells (neutrophils) are gradually deposited on the bottom.
HSV is the measure of the rate at which red blood cells precipitate at the bottom of the tube.
The inflammation can cause the red cells to aggregate so they can fall faster.
Normal results (Westergren method)
- Men under 50 years: less than 15 mm / hr
- Men over 50 years of age: less than 20 mm / hr
- Women under 50 years of age: less than 20 mm / hr
- Women over 50 years of age: less than 30 mm / hr
- Newborn: 0 to 2 mm / hr
- Newborn to puberty: 3 to 13 mm / hr
An increase in HSV may be due to:
- Cancers like lymphoma or multiple myeloma
- Kidney disease
- Thyroid disease
Among the common autoimmune diseases are:
2. Rheumatoid arthritis
Very high levels of HSV can occur with these autoimmune diseases:
1. Allergic vasculitis
2. Giant cell arteritis
3. Hyperfibrinogenemia (increased levels of fibrinogen in the blood)
4. Waldenström macroglobulinemia
5. Necrotizing vasculitis
6. Rheumatic polymyalgia
High VHS can be caused by infections, including:
1. Systemic infection
infections 3. Heart infection (endocarditis) or heart valves
4. Rheumatic fever
In blood tests, even the peripheral smear can be done, a test that gives some information about the number and shape of blood cells.
It is performed by excluding any abnormalities of red blood cells and platelets in: