Colon cancer is an abnormal growth of cells that are found in the large intestine and can become a cancer. 
If the tumor extends into the lower part of the colon (rectum), the cancer may be colorectal.

What is colon cancer?

Cancer is a disease characterized by uncontrolled growth of cells, when this growth affects the cells of the intestine causes colon cancer.

Most cancers of the colon arise from small non-cancerous (benign) masses called adenomatous polyps that form on the inner walls of the intestine. Some of these polyps can become malignant tumors of the colon over time if they are not removed during colonoscopy. 
Colon cancer cells invade and cause tissue damage near the tumor and cause many complications.

Cancer cells from malignant tumors can travel through the bloodstream and lymphatic system and spread to other parts of the body. These cancer cells can grow in different places, invade and destroy other healthy tissues throughout the body. 
These formations are called metastases and are the result of a serious illness that is very difficult to treat.

The colon cancer is the third leading cause of cancer death in the United States and is the third most common cancer after lung cancer and prostate cancer in men and after lung cancer and breast cancer in women.

Causes of colon cancer

Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death in the United States. 
Almost all colon cancers begin in the glands of the colon and rectum walls. 
There is no single cause of colon cancer. Almost all colon cancers begin as benign polyps and slowly become cancer. 
There is a high risk of colon cancer in the following cases:

  • Age over 60 years,
  • Eat lots of red or processed meat,
  • There are colorectal polyps,
  • Suffering from inflammatory bowel disease ( Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis ),
  • There is a familiarity of colon cancer.

Some hereditary diseases increase the risk of developing colon cancer. Two of the most frequent are:

  • Familial adenomatous polyposis,
  • Hereditary colorectal cancer without polyposis (or Lynch syndrome).

Feeding is critical in colon cancer risk. 
Colon cancer can be linked to a high fat diet and red meat with a low fiber content. 
Smoking cigarettes and alcohol are other risk factors for colorectal cancer.

What are the symptoms of colon cancer?

Colorectal cancer may be present for several years before developing the symptoms. 
Symptoms vary depending on the location of the cancer in the large intestine.

1. The right colon is large, right colon tumors can grow before causing abdominal symptoms. 
Generally, right side cancer causes iron deficiency anemia due to slow blood loss over a long period of time. 
Anemia due to iron deficiency causes fatigue and weakness.

2. The left descending colon is narrower than the right ascending colon. Therefore, left-sided colon cancers are more likely to cause partial or complete intestinal occlusion (blockage). 
Tumors that cause intestinal obstruction can cause partial symptoms of constipation , diarrhea , tummy ache , cramps and bloating . 
The red blood in the stool  may also indicate an increase in the left end of the colon or rectum.

However, when the cancer grows, the symptoms are:

  • Diarrhea or constipation,
  • Changes in stool consistency,
  •  Rectal bleeding or blood in the stool,
  • Abdominal pain, bloating or cramps,
  • Pain during bowel movement,
  • Continuous stimuli to defecate,
  • Weakness or fatigue,
  • Fever,
  • Unexplained weight loss,
  • Irritable bowel syndrome ,
  • Iron deficiency (anemia).

If the cancer spreads or metastasizes, additional symptoms may occur in the newly affected area. 
The symptoms of metastasis ultimately depend on where the cancer has spread, the liver is the organ where more metastases form.

Diagnosis of colon cancer

When a patient has symptoms of colon cancer, your doctor may look at the disease using one of several tests:

  • The occult blood in the stool (FOBT) -The colon cancer sometimes causes small drops of blood, too small to be seen with the naked eye, the FOBT test using a special chemical to check the stool sample of the patient.
  • Flexible sigmoidoscopy , using a thin flexible tube, called a simoidoscope, the doctor looks for polyps in the patient’s gut.
  • Double Contrast Barium Enema (EBDC) – A silver metallic substance called barium is injected into the patient’s colon through the rectum. Barium is seen on the patient’s radiograph .
  • Colonoscopy  – Using a thin instrument called the colonoscope, the doctor looks inside the patient’s colon. During the procedure, the doctor removes pieces of tissue (biopsy) for examination of cancer. 
    If your doctor detects the polyps, he or she can also remove them.
  • A more recent method, called virtual colonoscopy shows images of the colon without entering the body through a CT scan.

 

Examination of feces, DNA-
based Fecal DNA-based examinations, this examination examines the DNA  from a sample of the patient’s feces to look for genetic defects associated with colon cancer.

Guidelines for Colon Cancer Treatment by Phase

Phase 0

Since these tumors have not grown beyond the inner wall of the colon, surgery to remove the cancer is sufficient, this is called polypectomy. 
In most cases, polypectomy is performed during colonoscopy with a colonoscope. 
Resection of the colon (colectomy) is rare and is performed only if the tumor is very large. 
Among the natural remedies, a healthy diet for cancer is important in combating this disease.

Phase I
These tumors have grown through several layers of the colon but have not spread beyond the wall of the intestinal wall (or lymph nodes). 
The surgery to remove the colon section that has cancer and the neighboring lymph nodes is the standard treatment, called partial colectomy. There are no other therapies.

Phase II
This cancer has grown through the wall of the colon and has spread close but has not yet reached the lymph nodes. 
Surgery (colectomy) may be the only treatment needed. 
However, your doctor may recommend adjuvant chemotherapy if the cancer has a risk of recurrence due to some factors such as:

  • They are very abnormal cells (high grade) by microscopic analysis.
  • The cancer has grown in nearby organs.
  • The surgeon did not remove at least 12 lymph nodes.
  • The cancer was found on or near the surgical specimen, which means that a part can be left behind.
  • The cancer caused a perforation in the wall of the colon.

Doctors have different opinions regarding the use of chemotherapy for stage II colon tumors. 
If the surgeon is not sure which removed the entire cancer because it has grown in other tissues, it may advise the patient to radiation radiation to kill any remaining cancer cells.

Phase III
At this stage, the cancer has spread to the neighboring lymph nodes, but not to other parts of the body. 
Surgery (partial colectomy) followed by adjuvant chemotherapy is the standard treatment at this stage.

Doctors may also recommend radiotherapy if the surgeon thinks that some cancer cells remained after the operation. 
In people who can not undergo surgery because of other diseases, radiotherapy and / or chemotherapy may be the main options.

Stage IV
Cancer has spread from the colon to distant organs and tissues. Colon cancer often develops liver metastases, but can also spread to other places such as the lungs, peritoneum (lining of the abdominal cavity) or distant lymph nodes. 
The result of the invasion of the cells of the lymphatic system are the swollen lymph nodes . 
The last stage of colon cancer, in most cases, is not operable. However, if only a few small metastases are present in the liver or the lungs can be completely removed along with colon cancer, the operation can help you live longer. 
Chemotherapy is usually performed before or after surgery.

In some cases, infusion of medication into the hepatic artery can be used if the cancer has spread to the liver. 
If metastases can not be removed surgically because they are too large or too many, it is possible to try chemotherapy before surgery. 
Chemotherapy is performed again after surgery. 
Another option may be to destroy tumors in the liver with cryosurgery, ablation or other non-surgical methods.

If the tumor is too diffuse to be resolved with the operation, the surgeon may perform a colectomy or a colostomy (an incision above the cancer and attacking at the end of an opening in the skin of the abdomen to allow intestinal evacuation).
This can prevent or prevent blockage of the colon and may prevent some problems. Sometimes this can be avoided by inserting a stent (a metal or plastic vacuum tube) into the colon during the colonoscopy to keep it open. 
Most cancer patients in stage IV do chemotherapy and / or therapies to reduce cancer.

Diet for colon cancer

Many people underestimate the importance of diet in the treatment of cancer because they think that to stay healthy is enough to go to the doctor and take prescription drugs. 
In fact, in order to have good health you need to follow a healthy lifestyle and maintain a good diet. 
You should avoid smoking and drinking alcohol, you need regular exercise four times a week, for example, walking or running 1 hour and 30 minutes. 
The diet is essential to detoxify the liver and the intestine where the immune system is formed. 
These organs also serve to eliminate residues that can cause tissue thickening and tumor formation. 
There are people cured of cancer without anticancer therapies, but with a more natural diet.
These people have eliminated dairy products, meat, refined grains and other animal proteins, but they ate lots of fruits, vegetables, fresh juice centrifuged at home. 
Unfortunately there is no pill that can cure cancer, so a good diet is the only natural therapy that has produced interesting results. 
So you have to drink water and lemon (if tolerated) in the morning after waking up, continue with many fruit and vegetable snacks, and centrifuges juices throughout the day. 
It is essential to make at least 5/6 meals a day and not limit yourself to breakfast, lunch and dinner. 
The difference appears after the first few days, more energy, you sleep better at night and mood improves.
In subsequent tests, you should see the difference, for example, the tumor shrinks or disappears. 
If the patient changes diet at an advanced stage of the tumor, cure or remission is not always possible.

 

 

Diet for colon cancer

Many people underestimate the importance of diet in treating the tumor, thinking that to feel good just consult the doctor and take the prescribed medication. 
For good health you have to follow a healthy lifestyle and a balanced diet. 
Avoid smoking and drinking alcohol, exercise regularly 4 times a week, for example walking 1 hour or running 30 minutes. 
Diet is fundamental to detoxify the liver and intestine where the immune system occurs. 
These organs also serve to eliminate waste that can cause tissue thickening and tumor formation.

There are some who have cured the tumor without cancer treatments, but only with a more natural diet. 
These subjects eliminated dairy products, meat, refined grains and other animal proteins, thus eating a lot of fruits, vegetables, centrifuges and homemade fruit juices. 
There is no lozenge that can cure cancer, so diet is the only natural treatment that has yielded interesting results. 
So you should drink water and lemon (if tolerated) in the morning as soon as you wake up and continue with lots of fruit and vegetable snacks, juices and juice during the day.
It is essential to take at least 5 or 6 meals a day and must not be limited to breakfast, lunch and d î dinner. 
We will notice a difference from the first days: we have more energy, we sleep better at night and the mood improves. 
There should be a difference in the successive examinations, for example the tumors are reduced or they disappear. 
When the patient changes diet in an advanced stage of tumor, it is not always possible to heal or recover.

What are the survival rates (prognosis) for colorectal cancer?

Stage 1
Bowel cancer in the first stage is also called Dukes A. Since this is an early stage, it has a high cure rate. 
After surgery, more than 9 patients out of 10 (93%) survive for more than 5 years. Unfortunately, fewer than 9 out of 100 patients are diagnosed with phase 1 colorectal cancer today.

Stage 2
About one quarter (24%) of people with colorectal cancer are diagnosed at this stage. Depending on several factors, after more than three quarters (77%) even people in the second stage of colorectal cancer have a life expectancy of more than 5 years.

Stage 3
About 23% of people with colorectal cancer are diagnosed at this advanced stage of the disease. 
The result depends on the number of lymph nodes, which contain cancerous cells. After surgery, nearly half of people with stage 3 (48%) colon cancer will live for at least 5 years.

Stage 4 There
are about 9% of people with colorectal cancer, the cancer has already spread to another part of the body when it comes to diagnosis. 
For this advanced cancer, survival rates are lower. Only 6 people in 100 (6%) lived for at least 5 years after diagnosis. If cancer has spread to the liver and liver metastases can be removed by surgery, some recent studies have shown that survival rates are 25-40%.

Read too