Ovulation (also known as ovulation or follicular rupture) is a phase of the female menstrual cycle in which one of the ovaries expels an egg.
This is often the case around the middle of the cycle, although the exact time can vary.
During each menstrual cycle, various follicles begin to mature and develop under the influence of pituitary hormones.
Usually only one follicle fully develops. Subsequently, the other follicles retract, while the developed and dominant follicle releases an egg that can be fertilized.
Ovulation typically occurs between the 13th and 15th day of the cycle, but in certain cases it may be premature or late (for example, on the 17th or 20th day).
This is the case for women with a shortened or prolonged cycle, for example in pre-menopause.
Some medications, trauma or diet can alter female hormones and lead to blocked or absent ovulation.
The paradox in this situation is that you can also get pregnant through sexual contact during menstruation.
Sperm remain alive in the uterus for up to 6 days. If a woman ovulates on day 10, but has unprotected intercourse on days 4-5 while bleeding was still going on, fertilization can still take place on day 10 with the sperm remaining in the fallopian tube.
Fertilization is possible in the week after menstruation, while fertilization cannot take place in the last week of a regular menstrual cycle (28 days) because ovulation has already been completed.
Ovulation after miscarriage and scraping
After a spontaneous abortion, the woman experiences her next ovulation after about 2-4 weeks.
Ovulation after taking birth control pills
The birth control pill works by preventing ovulation. When you stop taking the pill, the hormones return to their normal levels very quickly, usually within a few days.
This means that a new production of the follicles begins, which eventually leads to ovulation.
Everyone reacts in a different way, some may take a few weeks to ovulate, others may take a few months, but in general the body should be regenerated within two to three months after stopping the contraceptive.
If a woman had problems with ovulation before taking the contraceptive pill, they will continue to exist afterwards.
Some women take the pill for irregular menstruation and other symptoms. But you can’t expect all the problems to be solved after stopping the pill.
How to know that ovulation is occurring?
During each monthly cycle, healthy couples of twenty or thirty years old who do not use contraceptives have a 20% chance of getting pregnant.
This is a surprisingly high percentage, considering that conception can only occur at the moment around ovulation – a short period of time that usually lasts 12-24 hours a month during which the egg is ready for fertilization.
You have to keep in mind that the sperm is able to survive and fertilize the egg for three to six days, no matter where it is.
The egg cannot survive long outside its environment.
This means that after a sexual intercourse that occurred a few days before ovulation, there may still be a lot of sperm in the female genital apparatus that fertilize the egg after it is expelled.
If the cycle is delayed by a few days, it is better to take a pregnancy test.
Important: Only one sperm cell (spermatozoon) is required to conceive a child.
Of course, it would be ideal to have sexual intercourse on the day of ovulation. After ovulation, the fertile period ends until the next cycle.
The following methods will help to understand when ovulation occurs; they do not offer mathematical certainty, but they can often be used to determine the time of ovulation:
1. Calculation of fertile days using the calendar
Ovulation often occurs in the middle of the normal menstrual cycle — the average regular cycle occurs every 28 days, from the first day of a cycle to the first day of the next. A normal cycle can last from 23 to 35 days, and it can also vary slightly from month to month. Keeping a menstrual calendar for several months can help understand a woman’s normal cycle.
Instruments such as the ovulation test (also called the LH test) can help determine the correct date. You can get it at the pharmacy.
If menstruation is irregular, you should also pay attention to other signs of ovulation.
to body signals 20% of women are informed by their bodies when ovulation occurs.
One may feel a dull pain or cramps in the abdomen. Usually they are localized only on the side of the body where ovulation occurs.
Central pain is considered a monthly reminder of fertility and is believed to be the result of the maturation and release of an egg from the ovary.
It is important to pay special attention to this, because it is likely that you will feel this symptom during ovulation.
Pimples that appear on the face are not a sign of ovulation. On the other hand, they are seen a few days before the onset of menstruation.
3. Graphical recording of the temperature curve
This is referred to as a basal body temperature (BT).
To do this, you should use a special thermometer (yes, you guessed it, a basal thermometer).
BT must be measured first thing in the morning after at least three to five hours of sleep and before getting out of bed, talking or sitting. BT changes throughout the cycle in accordance with fluctuations in hormone levels. The temperature is lowest in the first half of the cycle, which is dominated by estrogens. During the second half of the cycle, there is an increase in the hormone progesterone (after ovulation). Progesterone raises the body temperature because it has to prepare the uterus for fertilization and implantation (nidation) of the egg.
This means that in the first half of the month the temperature is lower than in the second half of the month after ovulation. Confused? Here’s a summary: BT reaches its lowest point during ovulation and then rises immediately and rapidly (by about half a degree) as soon as ovulation occurs.
Remember that the course of basal temperature in a month does not make it possible to predict the day of ovulation, but is evidence that ovulation has just occurred.
The graphical recording of the BT over a few months helps to create a cycle model so that one can determine in advance the day of ovulation for the coming months.
In this way, you know when conception is possible.
the cervix Ovulation is not a completely hidden process. When a woman’s body detects hormonal changes that indicate that an egg is just being released from the ovary, it prepares for the arrival of sperm in order to create conditions for fertilization. A detectable sign of impending ovulation is the position of the cervix.
The cervix (cervix uteri) is a neck-like structure located between the vagina and uterus. It has to widen at birth to allow the child’s head to pass.
At the beginning of a cycle, the cervix is short, hard and closed.
However, when ovulation approaches, it straightens up, softens a little and opens to allow the sperm to penetrate and fertilize the egg.
Some women may feel this change, while others may struggle with it.
You can check the cervix on a daily basis by using one or two fingers and recording the difference between one day and the other in a graph.
5. Another symptom of ovulation is the altered cervical mucus (the substance that makes the underwear sticky).
The purpose of the mucus is to bring the sperm to the egg inside the uterus.
As ovulation approaches, the amount and consistency of mucus changes. If there is no ovulation, the cervical mucus may appear sticky or creamy, or may not occur at all. The closer ovulation comes, the more the cervical mucus increases in quantity, acquires a bright color and resembles raw chicken protein in consistency.
When the cycle ends, the uterus becomes dry.
If the cervical position, basal body temperature, and type of cervical mucus are plotted on a graph, this can provide an extremely safe tool for determining the day when ovulation is likely to occur.
6. Another symptom of ovulation is the increase in sexual desire.
This shows that nature knows what it is doing. Research has shown that women experience an increase in sexual desire when they are most fertile.
A few days before ovulation, the right time becomes noticeable when sexual intercourse should take place if you want to have children.
7. Sore breasts are another symptom of ovulation.
Some women experience breast discomfort just before or after ovulation. This is related to the hormones in the blood and serves to prepare the woman for pregnancy. Various women have confirmed that the last confirmation of ovulation is pain in the breasts.
8. Buy an ovulation test.
You don’t want to mess around with the slime?
That’s not necessary these days. The ovulation prediction kit is able to determine the date of ovulation 12-24 hours in advance by measuring the level of luteinizing hormone (LH), which is the last of the hormones to peak before actual ovulation. All you have to do is dip the absorbent test stick into urine and wait to see if the indicator detects imminent ovulation.
How does the ovulation test work?
The tests are based on an increase in the hormone LH in the urine.
This is done a day or two before ovulation.
A small amount of LH is always present in the blood and urine, but in the days leading up to ovulation, the amount increases by 100% to 500%.
The most fertile period in the cycle is 12 to 36 hours after the peak of LH.
This is the time when fertilization is most likely.
How is the ovulation test used?
Depending on the brand of the set that analyzes the urine, you can collect urine in a cup or you can hold an absorbent compress in the urine stream.
The color strokes appear on the test strip or test strips to indicate whether the summit of the LH has been reached.
The digital set uses symbols such as a smiling face to indicate when the most fertile days are.
Descriptions may vary slightly depending on which set is used. In general, one should try to collect urine between 10 a.m. and 20 p.m. The best time is probably between 14:00 p.m. and 14:30 p.m.
Do not test the urine immediately after waking up, because you can miss the first day of the LH peak. You should reduce the amount of fluid you drink two hours before the test. Too much fluid dilutes the urine and could make it harder to see the peak.
The result should be read within 5 minutes to get a reliable result. A positive result does not disappear, but some negative results may reveal a second faint color band. After the result has been read, the test stick is thrown away.
Symptoms of ovulation
- Increased sexual desire
- Swollen breasts
- Increase in basal body temperature
- Increased mucus production from the cervix uteri
Symptoms of pregnancy
The symptoms of pregnancy can vary just as much as menstrual pain and are different for each woman.
Some pregnant women experience more intense symptoms than others, or they occur at different weeks of pregnancy.
There are women who don’t notice any symptoms in the first few weeks, so you can’t rely too much on feeling to make sure you’re pregnant.
- Discharge due to nidation, accompanied by cramping and tenderness of the breasts
- Nausea and possible vomiting
- Swollen breasts
- Back pain and headaches
- Cravings for certain foods
- Frequent urination
- Increased body temperature