Bruising legs (or contusion or bruise) tissue injuries are located under the skin.
Normally, it happens when a person is hit with something hard.
The surface of the skin remains intact and shows no signs of injury.
Blood comes out of broken blood vessels, but stays under the skin.
Later, this trapped blood causes a red or purple spot under the skin that can be seen with the naked eye.
It is a bruise that hurts to the touch.
It is not permanent and the color changes as the days go by.
Bruises can also form under the nails , in this case we speak of subungual hematoma .
- 1 Causes of bruising on the legs
- 2 Causes of bruising that do not go away
- 3 Causes of bruising on the legs without bumps
- 4 Symptoms of bruising on the body
- 5 When do you have to worry about bruises on your legs?
- 6 Frequent bruising on the legs
- 7 Treatment for bruises on the legs
- 8 How to hide the bruises?
- 9 How long do the bruises on the body last?
Causes of bruising on the legs
When capillaries (or small blood vessels) break or cause slight bleeding under the skin, they can cause unexplained bruising.
Between the causes of the bruises in the legs they are:
Platelets have the function of closing the lesions in the blood vessels and stopping the bleeding .
The very low platelets promote the formation of large hematomas (recommended perform blood tests to rule out this problem).
There are several factors that could cause bruising.
Low platelets can be caused by:
- Insufficient production of platelets by the bone marrow , for example in the case of aplastic anemia, myelodysplastic syndromes, lymphoma ,leukemia , multiple myeloma, metastasisand granulomas of the bone marrow
- Accelerated destruction of platelets that may be caused by: thrombotic microangiopathy, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP).
- Splenic abduction . Sequestration of platelets in the spleen may be caused by:
- Portal hypertension (portal vein) derivable from heart failure , thrombosis of the hepatic vein or the vena cava thrombosis (Budd-Chiari syndrome)
- Cirrhosis – caused for example by chronic viral hepatitis or alcoholic hepatitis
- Malformación arteriovenosa de los vasos venosos esplénicos (raramente) – (Pooling of platelets in the spleen: role in the pathogenesis of “hypersplenic” thrombocytopenia – Aster RH – J Clin Invest. 1966 May; 45(5):645-57).
It is possible to observe the formation of red spots on the legs.
The liver produces the factors of coagulation , that is proteins that help to close the lesions of the blood vessels.
If the liver does not work properly, bruising or bleeding may occur more easily.
disease von Willebrand disease is a very rare genetic disease that can cause bruises without cause.
The blood does not clot properly and the person may have, for example, heavy bleeding in the nose and gums. In addition, these individuals are predisposed to bruising and bruising.
In some cases, the symptoms are very mild and the disease goes unnoticed. Desmopressin is used as a medicine for the treatment of von Willebrand disease.
Another reason for bruising may be purpura.
In this disease, the blood vessels break easily and cause ecchymosis of the legs that occur easily.
There are several forms of purple, among which:
- Immune thrombocytopenic purpura , which is associated with the effect of a drug or a virus
- Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura – the destruction of platelets is an immune mechanism, but there is no disease caused by viruses, autoimmune or by drug that affects plateletsCertain viruses or medications can alter antigens on the surface of platelets.
The body fails to recognize the altered platelets and, therefore, produces antibodies to fight them.
For this reason, the immune system destroys these small fragments of blood cells.
This disease is more common in women.Acanthosis nigricans
Acanthosis nigricans is a disease that causes the appearance of brown or black spots on the skin , especially in the folds and wrinkles around:
- Knee joint
It refers to a thickening of the stratum corneum of the dermis due to an excess production of the epidermal growth factor (EGF).
If the doctor has not diagnosed diabetes, care should be taken with other signs, including:
- Sed excess
- Frequent urination
- Frequent infections
- Blurry vision
In these cases, it is recommended to take the diabetes test.
According to the diet of the blood group , the cause of the fragility of the capillaries, and therefore of the bruises, is a type of feeding that includes:
For example, cheeses and fats cured with the cause of varicose veins.
According to this theory, milk and milk products are not suitable for the body and cause a negative reaction by the immune system.
Other causes of bruising
Medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (ibuprofen) and some antibiotics can increase the chance of developing bruising for no apparent reason.
Some of the diseases that cause bruises without reason are:
- Hodgkin’s disease
- Connective tissue diseases , such as Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Marfan syndrome and lupus
- Hemophilia and von Willebrand disease : these are diseases in which the blood does not clot normally
- Leukemia and multiple myeloma : are cancers of the blood. In the case of leukemia , the immature blood cells accumulate in the bone marrow and then in the blood. These immature cells form a mass that prevents the production of mature and functioning blood cells: platelets, white and red blood cells. This causes the formation of bruises
- Cirrhosis : this disease decreases the ability of the liver to produce the proteins that regulate blood clotting.
- Acute pancreatitis : in this disease there is asudden inflammation of the pancreas that can cause many bruises in the abdominal area.
- Sepsis : This is a generalized infection in the blood.
Some young women observe bruises after a workout in the gym .
The cause may be an injury while practicing Fit boxing or Thai boxing, but in some cases the bruises appear simply due to a sudden or violent movement.
In newborns and young children who do not speak, the doctor can not rule out violence as the cause of bruising.
The surgery always causes bruising or bruising.
Even a simple surgery, such as sclerotherapy for varicose veins or liposuction can cause bruising.
The intramuscular injections made in the buttock can cause the formation of a small round hematoma.
Causes of bruising that do not go away
Bruises that do not go away can be due to:
Anticoagulant drugs or that put at risk the ability of blood to clot, for example medicines:
- Non-steroidal anti-inflammatories
Deficiency of vitamin and zinc , which are essential for the production of collagen and to repair injuries.
In case of circulation problems , the cells and substances needed to repair the lesions take longer to reach the area of the bruise.
Among the causes of poor circulation are:
Swollen legs and arms – due to fluid accumulation, which causes:
- An increase in tissue pressure
- Rigidity of blood vessels
This reduces blood flow.
Infections can interrupt the healing process of the lesion almost completely. According to the St. Luke’s Clinic, an infection prevents the regeneration of healthy tissue, for example, inflammation takes longer to disappear.
In addition, there are certain strains of bacteria that can affect the blood’s clotting mechanism, therefore, they favor bleeding. According to a 2010 study published in the Journal of Dental Research , the two most dangerous strains of bacteria are pseudomonas aeruginosa and staphylococcus.
Causes of bruising on the legs without bumps
Diabetes can be one of the responsible causes.
Bruises without bumps are more frequent in women than in men, because they often have:
Often, women complain of bruises everywhere, on the legs, thighs, buttocks and arms.
Women with venous insufficiency or with considerable fluid retention may have bruising due to a massage because it causes the capillaries to rupture .
They can also be due to vitamin C deficiency (as this causes fragility of the capillaries), vitamin B12, folic acid and vitamin K.
Be careful with food to avoid vitamin deficiency, especially in children.
The steroids by mouth or intravenously can cause capillary fragility then the person is prone to bruising without blows.
Symptoms of bruising on the body
Symptoms consist of the appearance of a red-purple area as if there were small red spots or spots on the skin.
Bleeding under the skin causes a bluish, red, or purple sign that eventually turns green or yellow .
Bruises often hurt during the first few days, but when they become yellow or green they usually stop hurting.
The accumulation of blood tends to move by the force of gravity , in a week can move down even 10 / 20cm.
For example, trauma to the eye (also called a black eye) can cause the formation of a bruise on the cheekbone after a few days.
When do you have to worry about bruises on your legs?
If bruises are formed everywhere without bumps or trauma, especially at night, it is advisable to go to a doctor, because the cause could be a serious illness.
Frequent bruising on the legs
You can have a frequent ecchymosis formation in the legs because of the side effects of certain medications or an underlying disease.
Often, bruises can be seen in children who play and remain active throughout the day.
Red or bluish signs develop on the skin when they hit something. The cause of the bruises is quite evident: the soft tissue injuries and the small blood vessels under the skin. Although bruises may form on all parts of the body, the arms and legs are more predisposed.
Causes of easy bruising on the legs
According to experts, bruises on the legs and arms are common when a person ages.
The same problem in children and young people may be due to poor diet or illness.
Some people are predisposed to develop bruising for no apparent reason.
- It may be due to blood clotting problems.
- Corticosteroid medications and some dietary supplements (Ginkgo and fish oil)
- People who take anticoagulant medications may have frequent bruising
Elderly people often suffer from capillary fragility and therefore blood vessels break even after a light collision.
Treatment for bruises on the legs
Medications used for strokes should not be applied around the eye, mouth and nose.
In addition, it is important:
- Do not drain the bruise with the help of a sharp object
- Avoid any intense physical activity so as not to aggravate the hematoma
Here are some of the treatments that can be done at home to reduce bruising on the face and other parts of the body:
Ice : one of the easiest and most effective ways to eliminate bruising is an ice pack , but only during the first 24 hours after the trauma. Take the ice and wrap it in a cloth.
Place this compress over the area of the bruise for 15 minutes every hour to reduce bruising. This helps reduce swelling and relieves pain.
Hot packs: in addition to ice packs, hot packs can be used to reduce bruising.
Make a warm compress and place it on the affected area to decrease the pain. Remember that cold compresses work well for recent sprains, bruises and bruises.
In contrast, hot compresses are used to treat a subacute injury (two days after the blow).
Medications : do not take analgesics such as aspirin or warfarin. Instead, it is better to take paracetamol to reduce pain (Efferalgan).
This medication is for sale without a prescription and helps in the treatment of skin bruises.
Vitamins and other supplements can increase the chances of developing bruising, therefore, you have to talk to the doctor when taking supplements.
Arnica : Arnica is a natural medicine that is used for the treatment of bruises, it can be bought without a prescription.
For dark or swollen bruises, apply the arnica gel every three hours in the area of the bruise.
- Helps reduce ecchymosis and swelling
- Brightens the bruise
However, after the first application, in case of redness or itching, it means that the skin is allergic to arnica and therefore its use must be interrupted.
Eating healthy foods : Eating foods rich in vitamin C and vitamin K helps prevent the formation of ecchymoses since vitamin C and vitamin K are necessary for blood clotting and healing.
Foods rich in vitamin C are:
- Black currant
Foods rich in vitamin K are dark green vegetables such as:
Grape seeds can also be added to the diet, since they have antioxidant properties that help reduce the formation of frequent bruises.
Rest : a common advice is rest.
The elevated part of the injured body is advisable, in this way blood flows to the heart. This clarifies the bruise.
For example, in case of bruises on the thigh, you have to put the leg on a table (on a pillow).
How to hide the bruises?
To choose the right makeup, it is necessary to pay attention to the colors of the bruise.
The blue hematoma is hidden with the yellow makeup.
For a bruise of red color you have to use a light brown makeup.
The best type of makeup is a concealer that can be spread over the bruise, do not apply creams before the concealer because the bruise is not covered well and the effect of the makeup lasts less time.
When using make-up on a bruise, the bruise should be completely covered, making sure to cover the actual edges of the bruise as well.
In this way, the makeup hides the bruise and the skin does not seem unnatural or irregular.
How long do the bruises on the body last?
When the blood is reabsorbed, the bruise changes color. Therefore, the color of the contusion indicates how much time it takes for it to disappear.
When the blood begins to appear under the skin, the bruise is reddish in color.
After a couple of days, the hemoglobin of the hematoma changes color.
The bruise turns bluish-purple or black 1 or 2 days after the stroke.
After about 5-10 days, the ecchymosis may start to look slightly yellowish or greenish.
Then, the hematoma becomes brownish-yellow or brown about 10-14 days after the trauma. Generally, bruising takes 2-3 weeks to go away.
However, in some cases, the hematoma may last at least a month, especially in the elderly.